This review presents a synopsis on the current COVID-19 pandemic, with focus on preventive measures. COVID-19 is a new viral infection, and is in form of a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA Coronavirus which belongs to an expanded group of viruses which were identified six decades ago. Importantly, the new COVID-19 belongs to the group of SARS-CoV, and it originated in bats but infected humans through smuggled pangolins. At first, the mode of transmission of infection was animal-to-person, but person-to-person and community transmission of the virus has been confirmed in many parts of the world. With an incubation period of between two-fourteen days, signs and symptoms of infection are mild to high respiratory illness; characterized with cough, breathing problems (shortness of breath), high temperature (Fever), tiredness (Fatigue) and nausea. Presently, no vaccines or specific treatment is available for COVID-19, in light of the aforementioned; prevention is the only substantial and less expensive option. With the envisaged explosive community transmission of COVID-19 in the coming weeks in places with limited daily testing, especially in African countries, it is recommended among many that social distancing which includes avoiding any form of contact with people; either through greetings, hugging or shaking of hands and large gatherings, avoid contact with animal items, dead or alive animals, sick and dead people from areas experiencing COVID-19 epidemic, and basic hygienic practices like thorough washing of hands with clean water and antiseptic soap for the duration of at least twenty seconds should be practiced always. However, in the absence of the aforementioned, an alcohol-based hand gel should be used on the hands frequently. Furthermore, health care workers should adhere strictly to the standard preventive measures in areas of heightened COVID-19 epidemic.
Introduction: A video game is any software program that can be played on a computing device, such as a personal computer, gaming console or mobile phone. Video games are age and gender friendly, very popular but like other pleasurable endeavors, can have adverse consequences, which are reviewed. Aims: This review focuses on the effects of gaming on health, compares gaming with other disorders and opens further discussion on gaming disorder. The overall goal is to explore gaming disorder prevention methods including education, intra-and interpersonal counseling, the role of family and lifestyle modifi cation. Methods: A literature review was performed in Web of Science, Google and Spring Link databases as well as World Health Organization (WHO) material on gaming disorder. Date of publication was not an exclusionary factor but language was a factor. Only English language documents were included in our search. Results: Multiple system physical health disorders were found to be associated with long-term video game activity. The health problems most cited included visual, muscular-skeletal, obesity and epileptic seizures Conclusions: It is concluded that video gaming has many characteristics of other addiction disorders including deleterious physical and mental health consequences. The social and ubiquitous nature of gaming makes it diffi cult to recognize the signs and symptoms of excess gaming. Recommendations: Based on a review of the literature, it is recommended gamers become more aware of their time engaging in this popular activity. A greater awareness of signs and symptoms of gaming on daily activities, physical and mental health, and social relationships is encouraged. If persistent gamers experience depression or anxiety, it is recommended that they seek medical or behavioral health professionals.
The COVID-19 vaccination campaign is an ongoing worldwide effort to vaccinate large numbers of people against COVID-19 in order to ensure protection from the disease, control the rate of infection, reduce severe outcomes, and get back to normal life. Most African countries had a delay in the initiation of their COVID-19 vaccine national rollout compared to other regions in the world, and the goal of the immunization exercise in the continent is to vaccinate over 60% of the African population to attain herd immunity. Over the years, vaccination programmes are usually faced with challenges in Africa because of numerous factors. So far, some of the major challenges threatening the success of the COVID-19 vaccination rollout in most African countries includes the slow onset of the vaccination exercise, limited funds, concerns around vaccine safety and uncertainties, storage requirements and regulatory hurdles for vaccines, limited shelf life of COVID-19 vaccines, inability to access vulnerable communities in a timely fashion, problems around the use of different vaccines, and wars and conflicts. The solutions and other imperative recommendations to these challenges were provided so as to optimize the vaccination programme and to achieve an appreciable success in the COVID-19 vaccination programme on the continent. In conclusion, a holistic and timely planning, fast execution of plans, rigorous community involvement, and a robust multi-sectoral partnership will ensure a successful COVID-19 vaccination campaign in Africa.
The aim of this review is to give a synopsis on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, with major focus on the preventive measures. Ever since the influenza pandemic of 1918, and the second world war of (1939)(1940)(1941)(1942)(1943)(1944)(1945), the world has not been faced with a common problem in recent memory like the COVID-19 pandemic. The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic is caused by infection with a viral pathogen, the nascent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and is characterized by respiratory failure in severe cases. The communicability period of COVID-19 varies, but it is usually between 2-14 days, and the major signs and symptoms of COVID-19 are high temperature (fever), severe and consistent cough, and serious breathing problems in severe cases, however, complications result in the serious inflammation of the lungs, and organ malfunction occurs in patients with comorbidities and health conditions especially diabetes, heart disease and obesity. With high virulence and contagious nature of SARS-CoV-2, over 11.4 million confirmed cases and over 533,780 deaths have occurred as a result of COVID-19 globally, with over 6.1 million recoveries as of 6 th July 2020. Presently, there is no known cure for COVID-19, however, remdesivir has been approved for emergency use for the treatment of COVID-19 patients by the Food and Drug Administration, a United States federal regulatory body (FDA), while various clinical trial treatments and vaccines are being tried globally. The world is faced with containing the spread of the infection, and this review revealed that thorough hand washing with antiseptic soap and running water and usage of alcohol hand sanitizer, frequent surfaces cleaning, strict adherence to social distancing, regular respiratory hygiene, wearing of protective face masks, frequent testing, self-isolation, quarantine and rigorous contact tracing will help to prevent further spread, and control the transmission of the viral pathogen. It is however strongly recommended that only the strict compliance to the mitigative and preventive measures provided above will yield the desired results in the prevention, management and control of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Visceral fat is a specific fat that is produced in the body, transformed into cholesterol, and circulated in the blood to other parts of the body. The circulated cholesterol usually in the form of low-density lipoproteins forms plaque on the walls of the arteries, thereby constricting
and blocking them and preventing the free flow of nutrients to various vital organs in the body. Visceral fat is deleterious to the health of elderly people because it is mostly found in the region of the abdomen that houses vital organs such as the pancreas, liver, and digestive tract, and
it further affects the normal functioning of hormones in the body. Globally, 15 million people die of a noncommunicable disease (NCD) annually between the age of 30 years and the age of 69 years, and there is an increase in NCD morbidity among people older than 70 years. Accumulated visceral
fat in elderly people could have deleterious health consequences, as it is a predisposing factor for many other NCDs and chronic health conditions. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating, stress, and inactivity are the major causes of excessive visceral fat. However, measures to prevent the
accumulation of visceral fat are straightforward, and impressive results are achieved with regular physical exercise, healthy diet choices, and proper stress management.
Visceral fat is a specific fat that is produced in the body, transformed into cholesterol, and circulated in the blood to other parts of the body. The circulated cholesterol usually in the form of low-density lipoproteins forms plaque on the walls of the arteries, thereby constricting and blocking them and preventing the free flow of nutrients to various vital organs in the body. Visceral fat is deleterious to the health of elderly people because it is mostly found in the region of the abdomen that houses vital organs such as the pancreas, liver, and digestive tract, and it further affects the normal functioning of hormones in the body. Globally, 15 million people die of a noncommunicable disease (NCD) annually between the age of 30 years and the age of 69 years, and there is an increase in NCD morbidity among people older than 70 years. Accumulated visceral fat in elderly people could have deleterious health consequences, as it is a predisposing factor for many other NCDs and chronic health conditions. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating, stress, and inactivity are the major causes of excessive visceral fat. However, measures to prevent the accumulation of visceral fat are straightforward, and impressive results are achieved with regular physical exercise, healthy diet choices, and proper stress management.
As every nation battles the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic comprehensively, older adults are by far the most affected group in terms of morbidity and mortality rates. Particularly individuals in the age range of >60 years and with comorbidities and other geriatric conditions are at heightened risk of complications from COVID-19 compared to any other age groups in the world. The time between the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2) and the manifestation of the symptoms is between two to twelve days. Typical symptoms of COVID-19 are high temperature, dry cough, and breathing difficulties in complicated cases, while new evidence shows atypical presentations of COVID-19 symptoms in older adults, and are highlighted in this review. From this synopsis, we deduced that firstly, the severity of COVID-19 among older adults is because of biological (dwindling immunity with old age), socio-economic (poverty and over-stretched health system) and physical reasons (frailty and comorbidities). Secondly, there is an upsurge in the rates of transmission and COVID-19 fatalities in nursing homes globally. Lastly, to abate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 among older adults, strict adherence to physical distancing, frequent hand hygiene and respiratory hygiene, frequent disinfection of surfaces, stoppage to unnecessary travel and nonessential hospital’s visitations, appropriate use of face masks, healthy life style choices, proper identification and isolation of infected older adults, assistance and support for older adults in the community, and prevention of infections in nursing homes should all essentially be implemented globally. It is recommended that maximum compliance to measures provided in this review should be ensured and implemented. Governments, civil societies and general public should provide supports for older adults during this COVID-19 pandemic period, and new researches should look more into the global severity of COVID-19 on nursing homes and the geriatric populations generally to get progressively feasible exact information that will enable informed preventive choices.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) kill approximately 41 million individuals every year, proportional to 71% of all deaths universally. This paper discuses the role of healthy nutrition and diet in the prevention of non-communicable diseases among the aged. It is a theoretical research in which Non-communicable diseases and the aged was discussed, and researched backed nutritional recommendations for the prevention of common non-communicable diseases, and other geriatric illnesses was extensively discussed under; Increment in vegetable and fruit consumption, Lessening of saturated fat intake, Increment in dietary fiber, Lessening of dietary sodium intake, Increment in dietary potassium consumption and reduction in alcohol consumption. It was concluded that healthy nutrition can well help in the prevention of non-communicable and chronic diseases among aged, therefore, healthy nutrition should be a preferred strategy tool in the prevention of non-communicable and chronic diseases among this age group. It was however recommended that; keeping up of good weight, increasing of vegetable and natural fruits product consumption, reduction of saturated fat consumption, increasing of dietary fiber consumption, decrease in dietary sodium and increment of dietary potassium intake, and reducing the rate of alcohol use; all helps in the prevention of non-communicable disease and other geriatric illnesses affecting the aged.
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