This study includes altitude stabilization, hovering control any desired position and attitude control of quadrotor. Classically PD controller derived and applied to this system. Inverse dynamic control, feedback linearization control and sliding mode control methods have used to derive as nonlinear controllers. Linear and nonlinear control techniques applied to attitude control of this vehicle. Derived control methods have been performed using computer simulations and compared the results according to this study objective.
Electrification in urban transportation is becoming more popular, it is also becoming a necessity due to climate changes and sustainability issues. Trolleybuses are presenting an alternative for this purpose. Although their technology is a mature technology that has been used for decades, there are still some technical problems that need to be overcome. In this study, a technical method is presented for the conversion of trolleybus auxiliary power units. The electrification conversion demanded by the metropolitan public transportation company operating 22 trolleybuses in the province of Malatya is the replacement of diesel generators, used as auxiliary power units, with battery units capable of meeting the local operational requirements. For this purpose, a method is proposed and followed. At the first step of the implementation, real-time data has gathered from a trolleybus and this one round tour data is used to run on a scaled experiment. The setup has prepared as hardware and software to simulate the consumption on a scaled battery pack. Experimental results were interpreted with capacity and voltage restrictions resulting in the determination of battery chemistry and casing to be used. Then optimal battery placement was defined as a container loading problem and application was made with the first fit decreasing algorithm considering mass and volume restrictions. It was found that only two packing types out of six combinations are enough to form a battery pack within the mass and volumetric limitations. It is evaluated that the method İSMAİL CAN DİKMEN, is with
ÖzGünümüzde başta elektrikli (kara, hava ve deniz) araçlar olmak üzere batarya yönetim sistemleri (BYS), güneş ve rüzgâr gibi yenilenebilir enerji santrallerinin enerji depolama ve yedekliliğinde kritik bir rol oynamaktadır. Bu kapsamda hali hazırda perakende enerji sektöründe bulunan batarya yönetim sistemlerinin tüm fornsiyonlarını yerine getirirken; bu donanımlara bir benzeri dahi olmayan ek inovatif çözümler sunacak yeni nesil, modüler ve akıllı batarya yönetim sisteminin yerli olarak üretilip geliştirilmesi için 2018 yılında TUBİTAK 1512 Teknogirişim Sermaye Desteği Programı kapsamında, 2170454 numaralı ve "E-CAMELEON -Elektrikli Araçlar İçin Adaptif Batarya Yönetim Sistemi" başlılı projesi ile çalışmalara başlanılmıştır. Bu kapsamda BMS'nin ilk versiyonu geliştirilerek, proje başarı ile sonuçlandırılmıştır. Mevcut BSM'nin daha da geliştirilerek farklı çözümler için de kullanılabilmesi adına İnönü Üniversitesi
Electric vehicle technology is increasing its market share through its sound development. Battery management systems (BMS) also play an essential role in this technology regarding efficiency, safety, and meeting the end user’s expectations. In this study, a simulation study of a multi-chemistry BMS capable of real-time switching has been carried out so that the system can operate more efficiently. The proposed system aims to increase efficiency and performance using two batteries with different characteristics. The primary battery chemistry used is lithium titanate oxide (LTO) batteries, which can provide higher instantaneous power in times of high power demand. The second battery chemistry is lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries, which have higher endurance due to their high energy density. Each battery has six modules and provides a total voltage of 450 volts. The WLTP Class 3 driving cycle was used as the vehicle’s speed reference in the simulation, considering its power/weight ratio. The battery control signal required for switching between batteries is produced according to the instantaneous power requirement of the vehicle. For this, the acceleration value is calculated, and the transition from one battery to the other is determined accordingly. If the acceleration is above the threshold value of 0.75, the LTO battery is connected. In the other case, the LFP battery is connected. Contactors are used to provide switching between batteries but not IGBTs. Consequently, contactors can be used as switching elements with a transition window of 3 seconds. This technic is less costly than designing such a system with fast-switching circuit elements like IGBT. In addition, the multi-battery mechanism consisting of LTO and LFP chemistries showed better performance than a battery pack with only LFP chemistry with the same specs. In other words, multi-chemistry BMS provides a significant performance and efficiency increase.
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