Aims Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic bacterium, with a high capacity for biofilm production, which can cause severe damage in aquaculture. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical compounds of the essential oils of Lippia sidoides (EOLS) and Cymbopogon citratus (EOCC), and to evaluate the biocidal, antibiofilm and synergistic action with the antimicrobial florfenicol of these essential oils (EOs) against A. hydrophila. Methods and Results The antibacterial activity of EOLS and EOCC was verified by the minimum bactericidal concentration and by the action of these EOs against both forming and consolidated biofilms. The synergistic activity of EOs with florfenicol was performed using the checkerboard technique. The main component of EOLS and EOCC was carvacrol (44.50%) and α‐citral (73.56%), respectively. Both EOs showed weak inhibitory activity (≥3125.00 µg ml−1). Two bacterial isolates were able to produce biofilm, and EOLS and EOCC acted upon the bacterial isolates to prevent biofilm formation. A bactericidal effect was verified for EOLS in the previously consolidated biofilm for both isolates and for EOCC in only one of the isolates. In general, EOLS had a synergistic effect with florfenicol, while EOCF had an additive effect. Conclusions Both EOs were able to interfere with biofilm formation and did not have an antagonistic effect in combination with florfenicol. The best results were found for EOLS, which showed a synergistic effect with florfenicol and the ability to interfere in the formation of consolidated biofilm. Significance and Impact of the Study This study highlights the potential of EOLS and EOCC to interfere in biofilm and act in synergy with florfenicol to reduce the occurrence of A. hydrophila. Development of these compounds may contribute to the development of herbal medicines in aquaculture.
Aim: This study aimed to assess fundamental biochemical values of healthy animals and to provide useful data on comparative physiologies of Testudines, being assessed the serum biochemistry profiles, and body and tail biometry of Trachemys scripta elegans and Trachemys dorbignyi bred in interaction in the semiarid region of the São Francisco river valley.
Materials and Methods: Serum biochemistry variables (urea, creatinine, glucose, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, and albumin/globulin ratio), and biometry values of the body (mass [body mass (BM)], maximum curvilinear length [carapace length (CL)], and width [carapace width (CW)] of the carapace, maximum curvilinear length [plastron length (PL)], and width [plastron width PW] of the plastron), and the tail (total length of the tail [TLT], pre-cloacal tail length [PrCL], post-cloacal tail length [PoCL]) were measured after 24 h fasting.
Results: T. s. elegans displayed higher BM, CL, CW, PL, PW, AST, TP, albumin, and globulin values. T. dorbignyi displayed higher values of glucose, TLT, and PrCL. Variables aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total protein (TP) in T. s. elegans and glucose in T. dorbignyi explained most of the variance between the species and could serve to distinguish them.
Conclusion: We conclude that most of the differences between T. s. elegans and T. dorbignyi shall be explained by biometric variables, AST, TP, and glucose, which characterize interspecific differences. Our results point out terms of reference for these species bred in captivity in the semiarid region of Brazilian Northeastern region and serve as a model for the comparative intra- and inter-species physiology and as a base for the health assessment of these species.
Aim: This study aimed to assess fundamental biochemical values of healthy animals and to provide useful data on comparative physiologies of Testudines, being assessed the serum biochemistry profiles, and body and tail biometry of Trachemys scripta elegans and Trachemys dorbignyi bred in interaction in the semiarid region of the São Francisco river valley. Materials and Methods: Serum biochemistry variables (urea, creatinine, glucose, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, and albumin/globulin ratio), and biometry values of the body (mass [body mass (BM)], maximum curvilinear length [carapace length (CL)], and width [carapace width (CW)] of the carapace, maximum curvilinear length [plastron length (PL)], and width [plastron width PW] of the plastron), and the tail (total length of the tail [TLT], pre-cloacal tail length [PrCL], post-cloacal tail length [PoCL]) were measured after 24 h fasting. Results: T. s. elegans displayed higher BM, CL, CW, PL, PW, AST, TP, albumin, and globulin values. T. dorbignyi displayed higher values of glucose, TLT, and PrCL. Variables aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total protein (TP) in T. s. elegans and glucose in T. dorbignyi explained most of the variance between the species and could serve to distinguish them. Conclusion: We conclude that most of the differences between T. s. elegans and T. dorbignyi shall be explained by biometric variables, AST, TP, and glucose, which characterize interspecific differences. Our results point out terms of reference for these species bred in captivity in the semiarid region of Brazilian Northeastern region and serve as a model for the comparative intra- and inter-species physiology and as a base for the health assessment of these species.
Trachemys scripta elegans is an American underwater chelonian illegally marketed in Brazilian pet shops. When abandoned in nature, it compromises native species, threatening local biodiversity. However, little is known about the body development and structure of its reproductive tract. The objective of the present study was to investigate the morphology and biometry of testis, epididymis and penis, as well as the biometry of the body and secondary sexual characters in this species. Twenty-seven adult males were used aiming to contribute to preservation actions in captivity, population control, and scientific research, as well as to interspecific comparisons. Sex identification by the third claw length was effective, and the specimens presented harmonious and positive body development between mass, carapace, plastron, and height, with unimodal tendency and higher frequency of maximum carapace length at 15cm. The testes and epididymides presented biometric similarity between the antimeres and anatomical and histological structure similar to that of other species of chelonians and mammals, except for the type of epithelium. The findings suggest that there is conserved morphology between slider turtles and homology in relation to mammals. Histological similarity to the reproductive organs of other amniotes, including humans, may give rise to scientific and comparative studies, essential for the establishment of conservation strategies in reptiles.
Pesq. Vet. Bras. 33(Supl.1):1-7, dezembro 2013 1 semanas de idade (N=5/grupo). Os aspectos analisados incluíram a contagem das populações celulares presentes no estádio 1 do ciclo do epitélio seminífero (CES), eficiên-cia das mitoses espermatogoniais (RMi), produção meió-tica (RMe), rendimento geral da espermatogênese (RGE), índice de células de Sertoli (ICS) e capacidade de suporte das células de Sertoli (CSCS). Os resultados mostraram que número médio de espermatogônias A, espermatócitos primários em pré-leptóteno/leptóteno, espermatócitos primários em paquíteno, células espermatogênicas totais e células de Sertoli mostraram variações numéricas em funAnálise morfológica e funcional do processo espermatogênico em cobaios (Cavia porcellus) da pré-puberdade até a pós-puberdade This study describes the morphological and functional analysis of spermatogenesis in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) with five (W5), six (W6), nine (W9) and eleven (W11) weeks of age (n=5/group). The aspects analyzed include counts of cell populations present in stage 1 of seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC), efficiency of spermatogonial mitosis (EMi), meiotic production (EMe), overall yield of spermatogenesis (EOS), Sertoli cell index (SCI) and carrying capacity of Sertoli cells (CCSC). The results showed that the average number of spermatogonia type A, primary spermatocytes in pré-leptóteno/leptóteno, primary spermatocytes in pachytene, total spermatogenic cells and Sertoli cells showed numerical variations according to age; however they were statistically not detected, while round spermatids increased significantly at puberty and then stabilized. The spermatogenic production of 5 to 11-week-old guinea pigs did not reach the stabilization point, and the RMi, RME, EOS, SCI and CCSC showed significant number variation as a function of age. The results demonstrate that Cavia porcellus in post-pubertal stage 2 are an advantageous experimental model to address studies on the processes of homologous recognition, alignment, and synapsis during meiotic prophase; intrinsic yield of spermatogenesis in guinea pigs is similar to Wistar rats, paca and agouti (Dasyprocta sp.) and lower than in cavies, whereas the functional efficiency of Sertoli cells is higher than in agouti and Wistar rats, and lower than in pacas, spiny rat and collared peccaries. We conclude that in guinea pigs the spermatogenesis is fully established at 6 weeks of age, indicating the pubertal stage of sexual development, and until week 11 they do not reach the maximum daily sperm production and therefore sexual maturity. RESUMO.-Este estudo descreveu as análises morfológica e funcional do processo espermatogênico em cobaios (Cavia porcellus) de cinco (S5); seis (S6); nove (S9) e onze (S11)
Gradela A., Pires I.C., Matos M.H.T., Corrêa F.M., Faria M.D., Silva J.S., Torres L.R.C. & Milanelo L. 2020. Reproductive biology, morphology, and morphometry of ovaries and oviducts of Trachemys scripta elegans in Brazilian Cerrado. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 40 (2):141-154. Although Trachemys scripta elegans is an exotic species popular as a pet in Brazil, studies on reproductive biology and capacity are non-existent in the Brazilian Cerrado. This study analyzed ovarian and oviduct characteristics and the egg production capacity of T. scripta elegans grown in this biome. The findings will associate with the size of the specimens and the sexual maturity, aiming at comparisons with native and exotic populations, as well as interspecific and contributing to the understanding of its impact on the invaded ecosystems and the establishment of eradication programs. Thus, 39 females had evaluated the body biometry and the morphology and morphometry of the ovaries and oviducts. G2 (N=20): with Class I (>5-10mm) follicles, with Class I and Class II (>10-fold) follicles, 25mm) and G3 (N=9) with Class I, Class II and Class III (>25mm) follicles. Analysis of variance, Scott-Knott's test, and Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the groups in body biometry; in the mean gonadosomatic index and gonadal morphometry, only the width of the oviducts in the right antimer and the mass and width in the left antimer were higher in G3, the only one that presented eggs. There was positive and harmonic development between body mass, carapace, and plastron, and gonadal growth occurred concomitantly with body growth, indicating a higher reproductive potential and a positive relationship between the size of the litter and the female litter. The gonadosomatic index proved to be an excellent reproductive indicator, and the ovarian evaluation was a better indicator of sexual maturity than the maximum carapace length. Ovaries were irregular structures, without delimitation between the cortical and medullary regions and filled with vitelogenic follicles of different diameters, atresic follicles, and corpora lutea, which reflected the ovarian complexity of the species and the presence of follicular hierarchy. In the scarce stroma, two germinative beds were observed per ovary and the presence of gaps very close to the follicles and associated with the blood vessels. Analysis of gonadal tissue revealed three types of oocytes according to cytoplasmic characteristics: homogeneous, vesicular or vesicular in the cortex with apparent granules. Oviducts were functional and separated, joining only in the final portion to form the cloaca and subdivided into infundibulum, tuba, isthmus, uterus, and vagina. The structure of the uterine tube was composed of serosa, muscular and mucous, which was full of glands. The presence of eggs in the oviducts indicated PVB-6299 MF
RESUMO: Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas são patógenos altamente disseminados no ambiente aquático, responsáveis por grandes perdas econômicas na piscicultura de diversos países. São micro-organismos oportunistas e sua patogenicidade está ligada a alguns fatores de virulência, como a formação de biofilme. O estresse salino é um dos fatores que favorecem a formação dessas colônias e, consequentemente, o aumento de infecções. Essas infecções quando estão associadas ao biofilme são ainda mais resistentes aos antimicrobianos. Nesse contexto, o polipirrol destaca-se como uma alternativa antimicrobiana por possuir vários atributos terapêuticos e não apresentar toxicidade aos organismos. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o perfil de susceptibilidade e a capacidade de formação de biofilme dos isolados de Aeromonas spp. associados aos diferentes níveis de salinidade e polipirrol. Determinou-se a atividade antibacteriana dos isolados e ensaios de motilidade foram realizados com bactérias que carreavam o gene fla. Também verificou-se a capacidade do cloreto de sódio e polipirrol em interferir na formação do biofilme. Os resultados foram evidenciados com a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As concentrações de 2 e 3% de NaCl inibiram a motilidade bacteriana. Na formação do biofilme, 83% dos isolados bacterianos induziram a produção na concentração de 0,25%. O polipirrol causou a morte de todos os isolados testados na concentração de 125μg/mL. Além disso, esse composto diminuiu a motilidade bacteriana nas concentrações de 0,25 a 3%, sendo que em relação à produção de biofilme, não houve interferência. Esses resultados evidenciam que os diferentes níveis de NaCl influenciam na formação do biofilme favorecendo a persistência da infecção. Este estudo também realçou a potencialidade do polipirrol como agente bactericida, sendo uma alternativa eficaz às drogas antimicrobianas para o tratamento das infecções causadas por Aeromonas spp.
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