RESUMOO objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e a qualidade das mudas de marupá com o sistema radicular podado em diferentes sombreamentos. O experimento foi instalado na Estação Experimental de Silvicultura Tropical do INPA, em Manaus (AM), situada na rodovia BR-174, km 43. As sementes foram beneficiadas e semeadas a 1 cm de profundidade em areia lavada. As mudas foram repicadas para sacos plásticos contendo 3 partes de terra de subsolo, 1 de areia, 0,5 de esterco de galinha curtido. Após as podas das raízes em 0%, 25%, 50% e 75% as mudas permaneceram por 30 dias sob galpão, irrigadas diariamente e depois levadas para canteiros cobertos com telas sombrite de 30%, 50%, 70% e 0% (sem sobreamento). Cada parcela continha 35 mudas incluindo bordadura simples. Foram avaliadas 5 mudas (repetições) ao acaso aos 57, 139 e 182 dias em viveiro. Os dados foram analisados por fatorial 4 x 4 na primeira e 3 x 4 nas outras medições. Foi estudada a altura total (HT), diâmetro do colo (DC), número de folhas, área foliar, pesos da matéria seca de raiz, caule e folhas e a qualidade das mudas pelo Índice de Qualidade de Dickson e pela relação HT/DC. As mudas foram atacadas por lagartas nos canteiros sem sombreamento e a sobrevivência foi superior a 83% naquelas sombreadas. As mudas resistiram às podas e, aos 182 dias, apresentaram maior qualidade para plantios e com maior equilíbrio de crescimento sob sombreamento de 50%. PALAVRAS-CHAVE:Espécie florestal, Silvicultura, Reflorestamento, Espécie nativa da amazônia e Espécie pioneira. Study of growth and quality of marupá (Simarouba amara Aubl.) nursery seedlings ABSTRACTOur objective was to evaluate the growth and quality of marupá (Simarouba amara Aubl.) seedlings with root system pruning in different shadings. The experiment was undertaken at the INPA Tropical Forestry Experimental Station, in Manaus (AM), located at highway BR-174, km 43. The seeds were processed and sown at a depth of 1 cm in washed sand. The seedlings were transplanted to plastic bags containing 3 parts subsoil, 1 sand, and 0.5 chicken manure fertilizer. After pruning their roots at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%, for 30 days the seedlings remained under the shed, irrigated daily and then planted in beds covered with screens of 30%, 50%, 70% and 0% ( without shading). Each plot contained 35 seedlings including simple edge. Five seedlings (repetitions) were assessed at random at 57, 139 and 182 days in nurseries. The data were analyzed by factorial 4 x 4 in the first and 3 x 4 in the other measurements. We studied the total height (HT), diameter of the colon (DC), number of leaves, leaf area, dry weight of roots, stems and leaves of the seedlings, the quality index of Dickson, and the relationship HT/ DC. The seedlings were attacked by caterpillars in beds without shading and survival was over 83% in shaded beds. The seedlings survived pruning, and at 182 days, showed higher quality for plantations, and better growth balanceunder 50% shade.
The species Dipteryxodorata (Aubl.) Willd. -Fabaceae) is distributed in the Amazon and produces noble wood used for different means; moreover, its seeds are used in the perfume and cosmetics industry, and as medication in folk medicine. Luminosity and su bstrate affect growth and quality before planting when seedlings are produced in plant nursery. Thus, wood particles of Ochromapyramidale (Cav. ex Lamb.) Urban in substrate supplemented with macro-and micronutrients at 0%, 30%, 50% and 70% shading were used to replace chicken manure in the production with high-quality D. odorata seedlings. The experiment was installed in the plant nursery of Tropical Forestry Experimental Station of INPA, in Manaus -AM. It was based on substrates composed of clay soil, sand and chicken manure at ratio 3:1:1/2of O. pyramidale particles to replace manure at ratios 3:1:1/2; 3:1:1 and 3:1:2. The completely randomized design was adopted, to enable factorial (4x4) analysis through ANOVA; means were compared through Tukey test at 5% at 306 days. Height, neck diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and, root, stem, leaf and total dry matter were measured; the survival was evaluated and, quality standard, assessed through the height/neck diameter ratio and Dickson Quality Index.The substrate with half part of O. pyramidale particles at 70% shading led to higher growth of D. odorata seedlings, to higher quality standards and better survival than chicken manure, allowing environmental valorization through the use of wood and residues of O. pyramidale from plantations in the Amazon.
-We aimed in this work to study natural populations of copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne) on the Monte Branco mountain at Porto Trombetas-PA, in order to support sustainable management and the exploitation of oleoresin from copaiba. We studied the population structure of copaiba on hillsides and valleys of the south face of Monte Branco, within Saracá Taquera National Forest, where bauxite ore was extracted in the biennium 2013-2014 by Mineração Rio do Norte (MRN). We produced a 100% forest inventory of the specie and of oleoresin extraction in order to quantify the potential production of the remaining area. The density of copaiba individuals with DBH > 30 cm was 0.33 individuals per hectare in the hillside and 0.25 individuals per hectare in the valley. Both environments presented a density of 0.28 individuals per hectare. The average copaiba oleoresin yield was 0.661±0.334 liters in the hillside and 0.765±0.280 liters in the valley. The average value of both environments together (hillside and valley) was 0.714±0.218 liters. From all individuals with DBH over 30 cm, 38 (58%) produced some amount of oleoresin, averaging 1.113±0.562 liters in the hillside, 1.329±0.448 liters in the valley and 1.190±0.355 liters in both environments together. The results show the need for planning the use of the surroundings of the study area in order to reach the required volume of copaiba to make feasible the sustainable management of oleoresin extraction in the region.Keywords: Biometrics; Copaiba Oleoresin; Natural population. ESTRUTURA POPULACIONAL E PRODUÇÃO DE ÓLEO-RESINA DE COPAÍBA ENTRE VALES E ENCOSTAS DE ÁREA DE MINERAÇÃO NO RIO TROMBETAS-PARÁRESUMO -O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as populações naturais de copaíba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne) na serra Monte Branco, em Porto Trombetas-PA, para subsidiar o manejo sustentável e a exploração de óleo-resina da espécie. Foi estudada a estrutura populacional da copaíba nas encostas e vales remanescentes da face Sul da serra Monte Branco, dentro da Floresta Nacional Saracá-Taquera, onde fora extraído o minério bauxita das áreas de platô no biênio de 2013-2014 pela Mineração Rio do Norte (MRN). Foi feito o inventário florestal a 100% da espécie e a extração do óleo-resina para quantificar o potencial produtivo das áreas remanescentes. A densidade de indivíduos de copaíba com DAP > 30 cm, na encosta, foi de 0,33 indivíduo por hectare, no vale foi de 0,25 indivíduo por hectare, e nos dois ambientes a densidade foi de 0,28 indivíduo por hectare. A média de produtividade de óleo-resina de copaíba na encosta foi de 0,661±0,334 litro e no vale, de 0,765±0,280 litro. A 52Revista Árvore, Viçosa-MG, v.40, n.1, p.51-60, 2016 GEBARA, J. et al.
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