Cross-cultural differences in temperament were evaluated for Russian ( N = 90) and US ( N = 90) samples of infants. Significant differences in levels of temperament characteristics, and the structure of temperament, were anticipated. Age and gender differences evaluated for the Russian sample were expected to be consistent with those reported for US infants. The Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised, a recently developed parent-report assessment tool, was utilised with both samples. Differences between these cultures were evaluated for 14 dimensions of temperament: activity level, smiling/laughter, fear, distress to limitations, duration of orienting, soothability, vocal reactivity, high and low intensity pleasure, falling reactivity, affiliation/cuddliness, perceptual sensitivity, sadness, and approach. Significant differences between Russian and US infants emerged for six of the IBQ-R scales. Parents of infants in the US reported higher levels of smiling/laughter, high and low intensity pleasure, perceptual sensitivity, and vocal reactivity, whereas Russian infants’ scores were higher for distress to limitations. Correlation matrix comparison procedure and exploratory factor analysis indicated differences in the structure of temperament for the two cultural groups. Age differences observed for the Russian infants were generally consistent with those reported for a US sample; gender differences did not emerge in this study.
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