Deep knowledge of the gross, imaging, and surgical anatomy of the insula is of paramount importance for neurosurgeons dealing with disorders in this area. The male insula is larger (increased gyri pattern) than the female. Moreover, the classic insular gyri pattern can rarely be absent, probably as a normal anatomic variation.
We provide a stereotactic anatomic guide for some common targeting necessities of the NA stereotactic surgery, resulted from detailed analysis and careful combination of the measured data of our clinically oriented study. We hope that our work will be a really useful guide for neurosurgeons applying deep brain stimulation of the NA.
1The workplace is a captive environment where the overall contribution of the meal served could be 2 an important element of the overall diet. Despite growing demand little information is available to 3 aid healthy dish selection. 4This study identifies information valued by consumers in the UK, Greece, Denmark and France using 5 best-worst scaling. Value for Money, Nutrition and Naturalness are key elements of information that 6 consumers require to be able to make a conscious decision about dish selection in all four countries. 7Latent class analysis shows that consumers align to one of five cluster groups, i.e., Value Driven, 8Conventionalists, Socially Responsible, Health Conscious and Locavores. 9Understanding key information needs can allow food operators to align their service with consumer 10 preferences across different market segments. 11
Purpose. Our purpose was to provide a combined clinically oriented study focused on the detailed anatomy of the human STN, with great respect to its targeting. Methods. For our imaging study, we used cerebral magnetic resonance images (MRIs) from 26 neurosurgical patients and for our anatomic study 32 cerebral hemispheres from 18 normal brains from cadaver donors. We measured and analyzed the STN dimensions (based on its stereotactic coordinates). Results. At stereotactic level Z = −4, the STN length was 7.7 mm on MRIs and 8.1 mm in anatomic specimens. Its width was 6 mm on MRIs and 6.3 mm in anatomic specimens. The STN was averagely visible in 3.2 transverse MRI slices and its maximum dimension was 8.5 mm. The intercommissural distance was 26.3 mm on MRIs and 27.3 mm in anatomic specimens. We found statistically significant difference of the STN width and length between individuals <60 and ≥60 years old. Conclusion. The identification of the STN limits was easier in anatomic specimens than on MRIs and easier on T2 compared to T1-weighted MRIs sections. STN dimensions appear slightly smaller on MRIs. Younger people have wider and longer STN.
Completeness of metadata is one of the most essential characteristics of their quality. An incomplete metadata record is a record of degraded quality. Existing approaches to measure metadata completeness limit their scope in counting the existence of values in fields, regardless of the metadata hierarchy as defined in international standards. Such a traditional approach overlooks several issues that need to be taken into account. This paper presents a fine‐grained metrics system for measuring metadata completeness, based on field completeness. A metadata field is considered to be a container of multiple pieces of information. In this regard, the proposed system is capable of following the hierarchy of metadata as it is set by the metadata schema and admeasuring the effect of multiple values of multivalued fields. An application of the proposed metrics system, after being configured according to specific user requirements, to measure completeness of a real‐world set of metadata is demonstrated. The results prove its ability to assess the sufficiency of metadata to describe a resource and provide targeted measures of completeness throughout the metadata hierarchy.
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