BackgroundFor transfusion purposes, blood donors must be accepted both in clinical and serological evaluations and must not have excluded their own donation using the confidential unit exclusion.AimThe objective of this study was to verify whether blood donors who choose self exclusion are more likely to be positive in serological tests than donors who do not.MethodsA cross-sectional analysis was carried out of 51,861 consecutive whole blood donations from January 2004 to December 2008 at a public blood bank in Londrina, Southern Brazil.ResultsSelf exclusion was chosen in 1672 (3.2%) donations, most frequently by first-time blood donors (p-value < 0.0001), by blood donors from external collections (p-value < 0.0001), by men (p value < 0.0001) and by under 30-year-old donors (p-value < 0.0001). The frequency of positive serology was 5.3% in the group that chose self exclusion and 3.5% in the group that did not choose self exclusion (p-value < 0.0001).ConclusionsThese results show that confidential unit exclusion used in this blood bank is effective and is inexpensive. However, the diagnostic power to detect blood-borne infections was low and resulted in the discard of a high number of blood bags without any direct or indirect serologic markers of pathogens. The use of confidential unit exclusion could be replaced with molecular tests to screen blood donors.
SUMMARYSerological, epidemiological and molecular aspects of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were evaluated in 183 subjects from Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, and adjacent areas. Serum samples which tested anti-HCV positive by microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) obtained from eight patients with chronic hepatitis C, 48 blood donors, and 127 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were submitted to another enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) and to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). About 78.7% of samples were also reactive by ELISA, with the greater proportion (70.8%) of discordant results verified among blood donors. A similar finding was observed for HCV-RNA detection by PCR, with 111/165 (67.3%) positive samples, with higher rates among HIV-positive subjects and patients with chronic hepatitis than among blood donors. Sixty-one PCRpositive samples were submitted to HCV genotyping, with 77.1, 21.3 and 1.6% of the samples identified as types 1, 3 and 2, respectively. Finally, analysis of some risk factors associated with HCV infection showed that intravenous drug use was the most common risk factor among HIV/HCV co-infected patients, while blood transfusion was the most important risk factor in the group without HIV infection. The present study contributed to the knowledge regarding risk factors associated with HCV infection and the distribution of HCV genotypes in the population evaluated. KEYWORDS:Hepatitis C virus; Anti-HCV; Genotypes; Epidemiology. INTRODUCTIONAbout 170 million people all over the world are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), although many ignore such fact 30 . In most cases, the infection develops as an asymptomatic clinical picture but with severe consequences, since about 80% of the infected subjects develop chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma 16,28 .Co-infection of HCV-infected subjects with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has important implications for the prognosis and management of both diseases. These subjects show elevated alanine aminotransferase levels and are at a higher risk of developing fibrosis, cirrhosis, liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma than subjects infected only with HCV 6 ; in addition, they show a higher risk of developing hepatic toxicity related to the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy than patients infected only with HIV 5,26 .The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of HCV-RNA allows the identification of the presence of active HCV infection. However, RNA levels may show fluctuations with nondetectable periods even in patients not submitted to interferon therapy 7 .Patient counseling regarding the risk-benefit of treatment also requires analysis of a liver biopsy and the determination of the HCV genotype. Differences in the response to treatment depending on the HCV genotype have been observed, with type 1 being more resistant than types 2 and 3 19 . Genotyping based on the amplification of the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) has the advantage that it can be performed on PCR ...
This study evaluated the usefulness of the anti-HBc, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV), human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II antibodies (anti-HTLV I/II), serologic tests for syphilis, and surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) as surrogate markers for the risk for HIV infection in 80,284 serum samples from blood donors from the Blood Bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, analyzed from July 1994 to April 2001. Among 39 blood donors with positive serology for HIV, 12 (30.8%) were anti-HBc positive, 10 (25.6%) for anti-HCV, 1 (2.6%) for anti-HTLV I/I, 1 (2.6%) was positive for syphilis, and 1 (2.6%) for HBsAg. Among the donors with negative serology for HIV, these markers were detected in 8,407 (10.5%), 441 (0.5%), 189 (0.2%), 464 (0.6%), and 473 (0.6%) samples, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001) for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Although the predictive positive values for these surrogate markers were low for HIV infection, the results confirmed the anti-HBc and anti-HCV as useful surrogate markers for HIV infection thus reinforcing the maintenance of them in the screening for blood donors contributing to the prevention of the small number of cases in which HIV is still transmitted by transfusion.
Objective: To analyze the HIV care continuum from the diagnosis in an HIV/AIDS Counseling and Testing Center (CTC), and the sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics related to gender. Method: Epidemiological study, conducted with data of individuals assisted at a Counseling and Testing Center, and followed in an outpatient clinic for HIV/AIDS. Pearson’s Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to obtain odds ratios, considering alpha value <0.05. Results: The prevalence of HIV among 5,229 users was 5%. The highest chance of positive results was among men, aged 14 to 33 years old, who were not in a domestic partnership. In the analysis of TCD4+ lymphocytes and viral load (VL) of 238 cases, 56.1% had a late diagnosis. We have identified gaps in the care cascade, especially linkage to the care, retention in care, and viral load suppression. Conclusion: The results suggest a late diagnosis for both genders, as well as difficulty in reaching the viral suppression goal.
A cascata de cuidados para pessoas vivendo com a infecção pelo HIV no Sul do Brasil: resultados obtidos em uma rede pública de saúde Serie de cuidados para personas que viven con una infección de VIH en el sur de Brasil: resultados en una red pública de salud AbstractThe cascade of care for people living with HIV infection (PLHIV) describes steps in diagnosis, linkage and retention in care, as well as the provision and success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of this study was to evaluate the rates regarding the retention in care, on cART, and suppressed viral load for PLHIV attended at a Brazilian public health network. Data on PLHIV from 116 cities of Paraná, Southern Brazil, attended from 2012 to 2015, were retrospectively collected through the Laboratory Tests Control System (SISCEL). The number of PLHIV related to care increased about 22.5% from 2012 to 2015 (4,106 to 5,030 individuals). The proportion of PLHIV retained in care showed a trend toward stabilization around 81.7-86.9%. Every year, the use of cART increased up to 90.3% for PLHIV retained in care. Viral load suppression was achieved by 72.8% of patients on cART and 57.1% by those linked to care. Retention in care and HIV viral suppression were more likely to occur in older PLHIV than younger ones; similarly, patients living in medium-sized cities were more susceptible to these factors than in large-or small-sized cities. In conclusion, the study showed a high level of retention in care and HIV suppression on cART, as well as emphasized that current efforts for treating already-infected PLHIV remain a challenge for our health public institutions and may contribute to highlight steps for improvement of the HIV cascade of care in our population. HIV; Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy; Sustained Virologic ResponseCorrespondence E. M. V. Reiche
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic is increasing in Brazil, and little information has been reported about the genetic host factors related to HIV-1 infection in the Brazilian population. A polymorphism in the conserved 3' untranslated region of the stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1/CXCL12) gene has been related either to resistance to HIV-1 infection and delayed progression to AIDS or to rapid disease progression and death. A longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate the association of the SDF1 polymorphism and the progression of HIV-1 infection in 161 asymptomatic patients infected with HIV-1 (ASYMPT) and 617 patients with AIDS (SYMPT) from Londrina and the surrounding region, southern Brazil. The endpoints used were the development of AIDS, death, and the slopes of the CD4 + T cell counts and HIV-1 RNA plasma levels. Among the 161 ASYMPT patients, all of the 7 patients (4.3%) homozygous for the mutation remained asymptomatic (p=0.1906); 6 of them had not initiated antiretroviral therapy. Among the 617 patients with AIDS, 40 (6.5%) progressed to death. Of these, 33/388 (8.5%) did not have the SDF1-3'A allele, 6/196 (3.1%) were heterozygous and 1/33 (3.0%) was homozygous for the SDF1-3'A allele (p=0.029). The SDF1 genotypes were not associated with the surrogate markers of HIV-1 disease progression such as the CD4 + T cell decline and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. The results observed in this study support the hypothesis that the mutation of SDF1-3'A could have a possible late-stage protective effect on HIV-1 disease progression in the Brazilian population.
The latest Brazilian guideline recommended the reduction of routine CD4+ T cell counts for the monitoring of patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) under combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of monitoring response to cART in HIV-1 infection using routine viral load at shorter intervals and CD4+ T cell count at longer intervals. CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were evaluated in 1,906 HIV-1-infected patients under cART during a three-year follow-up. Patients were stratified as sustained, non-sustained and non-responders. The proportion of patients who showed a CD4+ T > 350cells/µL at study entry among those with sustained, non-sustained and non-responders to cART and who remained with values above this threshold during follow-up was 94.1%, 81.8% and 71.9%, respectively. HIV-1-infected patients who are sustained virologic responders and have initial CD4+ T cell counts > 350cells/µL showed a higher chance of maintaining the counts of these cells above this threshold during follow-up than those presenting CD4+ T ≤ 350cells/µL (OR = 39.9; 95%CI: 26.5-60.2; p < 0.001). This study showed that HIV-1-infected patients who had sustained virologic response and initial CD4+ T > 350cells/µL were more likely to maintain CD4+ T cell counts above this threshold during the next three-year follow-up. This result underscores that the evaluation of CD4+ T cell counts in longer intervals does not impair the safety of monitoring cART response when routine viral load assessment is performed in HIV-1-infected patients with sustained virologic response.
A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to describe the epidemiological, immunological and virological characteristics, and the disease progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)co-infected patients from a southern Brazilian population. Of 778 HIV-1-infected individuals enrolled in the study from September 2001 to December 2003, and followed up until June 2004, 757 were tested for anti-HCV antibodies. Of these, 159 (21.0%) showed positive results for anti-HCV. Males, individuals in the 25 to 34 year age range, and individuals of lower economic levels were more likely to be seropositive for both viruses [prevalence rate (PR), 2.04; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.43-2.92; p<0.001]. The anti-HCV reactivity was also associated with blood routes of transmission (PR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.28-3.77; p<0.001), intravenous drug use (PR, 5.79; 95% CI, 4.74-7.07; p<0.001), self-reported previous sexually transmitted diseases (PR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.18-2.04; p=0.002), VDRL positivity (PR, 2.87; 95% CI, 2.40-3.43; p<0.001), and anti-HTLV I/II reactivity (PR, 5.09; 95% CI, 4.16-6.23; p<0.001). In the follow-up period, the HCV/HIV-1-co-infected patients showed a trend toward lower CD4 + T-cell counts, higher HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load and faster disease progression than patients infected only with HIV-1, but significant differences were not observed. Although there were proportionately more deaths in the HCV/HIV-1-co-infected group, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was a string predictor of increased CD4 + T-cell counts and decreased HIV-1 RNA plasma levels, suggesting that HAART is more important to the immunological and virological outcomes in HIV-1 infection than is HCV coinfection status.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers