Pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia decreased during rehabilitation. A higher pain catastrophizing level correlated with a greater level of knee pain during activities, more difficulties experienced during daily activities before and after rehabilitation. A high level of kinesiophobia correlated with more difficulties experienced in daily activities and poorer knee-related quality of life before and after rehabilitation.
Background and Objective. Many studies have suggested that each hand has a different special talent; however, there is a lack of data in the area of goal-directed bimanual hand coordination and its dependence on gender. The aim of this paper was to investigate gender-dependent bimanual speed-accuracy task performance. Material and Methods. Twelve healthy young males and twelve healthy young females (all righthanded) performed protractile movements with both arms simultaneously by pushing joysticks toward two targets as quickly and accurately as possible. Results. Though no significant difference was observed in the reaction time during a unimanual speed-accuracy task between the left and right hands as well as men and women, during a bimanual task, the reaction time of both the hands was significantly longer in women than men. There was no significant difference in the velocity of both the hands during a bimanual speed-accuracy task between men and women, while the accuracy of the left hand was significantly greater in men than women. There was no significant difference in intraindividual variability in the reaction time, maximal velocity, and path of movement between men and women as well as the left and right hands, but variability in the average velocity of the right hand both in women and men was significantly greater compared with their left hand. Conclusions. Whereas people typically look at the target location for a reaching movement, it is possible that two objects are simultaneously fixated.
Background and Objectives: Late long-term outcomes of perinatal asphyxia (PA) in school-age are often unclear. To assess long-term outcomes at an early school age in children who had experienced perinatal hypoxia or asphyxia, where therapeutic hypothermia was not applied. Materials and Methods: The case group children were 8–9-year-old children (n = 32) who were born at full term and experienced hypoxia or asphyxia at birth, where therapeutic hypothermia (TH) was not applied. The control group consisted of 8–9-year-old children (n = 16) born without hypoxia. A structured neurological examination was performed at an early school age. The neuromotor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Health-related quality-of-life was assessed using the Health Utilities Index (HUI) questionnaire. Intellectual abilities were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). Results: The case group, compared with controls, had significantly (p = 0.002) lower mean [SD] full-scale IQ (87(16.86) vs. 107(12.15)), verbal-scale IQ (89(17.45) vs. 105(11.55)), verbal comprehension index (89(17.36) vs. 105(10.74)), working memory index (89(15.68) vs. 104(11.84)), performance IQ (87(16.51) vs. 108(15.48)) and perceptual organization index (85(15.71) vs. 105 (15.93)). We did not find any significant differences in the incidence of disorders of neurological examination, movement abilities and health-related quality of life at an early school age between the case and the control group children. Conclusion: In children who experienced perinatal asphyxia but did not have cerebral paralysis (CP), where therapeutic hypothermia was not applied, cognitive assessment scores at an early school age were significantly lower compared to those in the group of healthy children, and were at a low average level.
Optimal nutrient intake ensuring better neurodevelopment for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between early (first 28 days) nutritional intake, first year growth, and neurodevelopment. In total, 120 VLBW infants were included into the study. A group of 95 infants completed follow-up to 12 months of corrected gestational age (CGA). Nutrient intake was assessed, and weight, length, and head circumference (HC) were measured weekly until discharge and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of CGA. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 12 months of CGA. Two groups—extremely preterm (EP) and very/moderately preterm (VP)—were compared. Growth before discharge was slower in the EP group than the VP group. At 12 months, there was no difference in anthropometric characteristics or neurodevelopmental scores between the groups. Higher carbohydrate intake during the first 28 days was the single significant predictor for better cognitive scores only in the EP group (βs = 0.60, p = 0.017). Other nutrients and growth before discharge were not significant for cognitive and motor scores in either group in multivariable models, whereas post-discharge HC growth was associated with both cognitive and motor scores in the VP group. Monitoring intake of all nutrients and both pre-discharge and post-discharge growth is essential for gaining knowledge about individualized nutrition for optimal neurodevelopment.
Background and Objectives: In very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns, parenteral nutrition (PN) is delivered via a peripheral venous catheter (PVC), a central venous catheter (CVC), or a peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC). Up to 45% of PICCs are accompanied by complications, the most common being sepsis. A PVC is an unstable PN delivery technique requiring frequent change. The growth and neurodevelopment of VLBW newborns may be disturbed because of catheters used for early PN delivery and complications thereof. The aim of the conducted study was to evaluate the effect of two PN delivery techniques (PICC and PVC) on anthropometric parameters and neurodevelopment of VLBW newborns. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted in VLBW (≥750–<1500 g) newborns that met the inclusion criteria and were randomized into two groups: PICC and PVC. We assessed short-term outcomes (i.e., anthropometric parameters from birth until corrected age (CA) 36 weeks) and long-term outcomes (i.e., anthropometric parameters from CA 3 months to 12 months as well as neurodevelopment at CA 12 months according to the Bayley II scale). Results: In total, 108 newborns (57 in the PICC group and 51 in the PVC group) were randomized. Short-term outcomes were assessed in 47 and 38 subjects, and long-term outcomes and neurodevelopment were assessed in 38 and 33 subjects of PICC and PVC groups, respectively. There were no differences observed in anthropometric parameters between the subjects of the two groups in the short- and long-term. Mental development index (MDI) < 85 was observed in 26.3% and 21.2% (p = 0.781), and psychomotor development index (PDI) < 85 was observed in 39.5% and 54.5% (p = 0.239) of PICC and PVC subjects, respectively. Conclusions: In the short- and long-term, no differences were observed in the anthropometric parameters of newborns in both groups. At CA 12 months, there was no difference in neurodevelopment in both groups.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of visual feedback information (VFI) on the isometric contraction of the forearm flexor muscles in men and women after an ischemic stroke when doing a physical load at 20% of strength. Material and Methods. The study included healthy subjects (n=20) and subjects after ischemic stroke (n=20). The study was conducted in Lithuanian Sports University. The measurements of maximum voluntary strength (MVS) and accurate isometric contraction were performed using an isokinetic dynamometer Biodex System Pro 3. Results. The absolute errors of isometric contraction of the right arm muscles at 20% of MVS were similar in all the groups during the attempt with visual feedback information. The smallest absolute errors of the healthy subjects were 1.42±0.35 Nm when the task was performed with visual feedback and the greatest absolute errors were 4.69±0.95 Nm (P<0.01) while performing the task without visual feedback. Meanwhile, the smallest and greatest absolute errors of the subjects after ischemic stroke were 1.32±0.45 Nm and 5.05±0.63 Nm, respectively, while performing the task without visual feedback (P<0.01). Conclusions. Maximum voluntary strength was greater in all the groups of men. The absolute errors of isometric contractions of the right and left arm muscles tended to increase in both the men and the women when there was no visual feedback information. The women and the men after an ischemic stroke produced greater absolute errors when performing the task with the right and left arm without visual feedback information than the healthy subjects.
Background. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a condition of impaired movement or positioning arising from the immature brain defect or subsequent damage. Occupational therapy can be defined as a broad method of support enabling the affected person to get through the everyday situations independently and responsibly. Research aim. The aim of the research was to assess the requirements and impact of occupational therapy on the independence of children with cerebral palsy. Methods. The study was conducted at children’s rehabilitation sanatorium in “Palanga Amber”, Palanga. Researched sample consisted of 30 children (and their parents/guardians) with cerebral palsy who were at the second stage of their rehabilitation treatment. The average age of the researched group was 9.3 ± 3.9 years. Both girls and boys were of the same age on average, i.e. the age across both genders was distributed evenly. Children who participated in the research were selected at random. Children’s independence was assessed using standardised Taxonomy Test before and after the occupational therapy. A questionnaire, devised by the author of this study, was used to capture parents’ (guardians’) opinions on the occupational therapy. The questionnaire was filled in during the last session of occupational therapy. Results. At the very start of the occupational therapy the average score on Taxonomy test was 78.7 ± 20.5 points, whilst at the end of the treatment it increased to 87 ± 21.5 points. Children’s independence levels significantly improved across the entire researched sample (p < 0.05) (with the statistical confidence level of 95 per cent). After the occupational therapy the average of girls’ points increased significant by 7.5 ± 3.6 points (p < 0.05) and at the end of occupational therapy reached 83.8 ± 22.8 points. Assessment of the alteration/changes of boys’ independence was statistically significant as well and during the occupational therapy increased by 8.8 ± 4.5 points (p < 0.05) reaching 80.4 ± 20.2 points. Questioned 11 (37%) parents of the girls with cerebral palsy told that the independence skills of their children increased after the occupational therapy and 1 (%) parent told that the occupational therapy had no positive influence to the child. Parents of boys with cerebral palsy indicated that independence skills for 17 (57%) of boys increased and had no positive influence to 1 (3%) child. Parent questionnaire results revealed that the occupational therapy had a significant impact on the independence of children with cerebral palsy. Conclusions. We suggest that occupational therapy had a significant impact on children with cerebral palsy independently of their gender, age, condition, etc. Parents were of the opinion that their children readily participated in occupational therapy sessions and applied their learned skills in their everyday activity. Most parents (94%) told that occupational therapy was necessary to their children and it led to the improvement of children’s independence skills.Keywords: cerebral palsy, occupational therapy, independence.
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