Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impairment is often reported among COVID-19 ICU survivors, and little is known about their long-term outcomes. We evaluated the HRQoL trajectories between 3 months and 1 year after ICU discharge, the factors influencing these trajectories and the presence of clusters of HRQoL profiles in a population of COVID-19 patients who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Moreover, pathophysiological correlations of residual dyspnea were tested. Methods: We followed up 178 survivors from 16 Italian ICUs up to one year after ICU discharge. HRQoL was investigated through the 15D instrument. Available pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and chest CT scans at 1 year were also collected. A linear mixed-effects model was adopted to identify factors associated with different HRQoL trajectories and a two-step cluster analysis was performed to identify HRQoL clusters. Results: We found that HRQoL increased during the study period, especially for the significant increase of the physical dimensions, while the mental dimensions and dyspnea remained substantially unchanged. Four main 15D profiles were identified: full recovery (47.2%), bad recovery (5.1%) and two partial recovery clusters with mostly physical (9.6%) or mental (38.2%) dimensions affected. Gender, duration of IMV and number of comorbidities significantly influenced HRQoL trajectories. Persistent dyspnea was reported in 58.4% of patients, and weakly, but significantly, correlated with both DLCO and length of IMV. Conclusions: HRQoL impairment is frequent 1 year after ICU discharge, and the lowest recovery is found in the mental dimensions. Persistent dyspnea is often reported and weakly correlated with PFTs alterations. Trial registration: NCT04411459. 15D score 3 months -mean ± SD 0.857 ± 0.133 0.927 ± 0.061 0.800 ± 0.135 0.853 ± 0.114 0.637 ± 0.204 < 0.001 15D score 1 year -mean ± SD 0.880 ± 0.115 0.964 ± 0.033 0.820 ± 0.068 0.866 ± 0.088 0.572 ± 0.112 < 0.001 Mobility -mean ± SD 0.876 ± 0.207 0.963 ± 0.104 0.828 ± 0.191 0.901 ± 0.166 0.375 ± 0.298 < 0.001 Vision -mean ± SD 0.953 ± 0.119 0.992 ± 0.040 0.942 ± 0.108 0.949 ± 0.094 0.681 ± 0.280 < 0.001 Hearing -mean ± SD 0.968 ± 0.098 1.000 ± 0.000 1.000 ± 0.000 0.745 ± 0.135 0.857 ± 0.192 < 0.001 Breathing -mean ± SD 0.746 ± 0.238 0.879 ± 0.154 0.620 ± 0.227 0.753 ± 0.223 0.438 ± 0.238 < 0.001 Sleeping -mean ± SD 0.838 ± 0.238 0.940 ± 0.135 0.716 ± 0.274 0.929 ± 0.142 0.632 ± 0.312 < 0.001 Eating -mean ± SD 0.979 ± 0.102 1.000 ± 0.000 1 .000 ± 0.000 1.000 ± 0.000 0.587 ± 0.221 < 0.001 Speech -mean ± SD 0.980 ± 0.090 0.996 ± 0.032 0.996 ± 0.036 0.948 ± 0.117 0.777 ± 0.276 < 0.001 Excretion -mean ± SD 0.974 ± 0.110 1.000 ± 0.000 1.000 ± 0.000 0.872 ± 0.191 0.720 ± 0.292
There is the urgent need to study the effects of immunomodulating agents as therapy for Covid-19. An observational, cohort, prospective study with 30 days of observation was carried out to assess clinical outcomes in 88 patients hospitalized for Covid-19 pneumonia and treated with canakinumab (300 mg sc). Median time from diagnosis of Covid-19 by viral swab to administration of canakinumab was 7.5 days (range 0–30, IQR 4–11). Median PaO2/FiO2 increased from 160 (range 53–409, IQR 122–210) at baseline to 237 (range 72–533, IQR 158–331) at day 7 after treatment with canakinumab (p < 0.0001). Improvement of oxygen support category was observed in 61.4% of cases. Median duration of hospitalization following administration of canakinumab was 6 days (range 0–30, IQR 4–11). At 7 days, 58% of patients had been discharged and 12 (13.6%) had died. Significant differences between baseline and 7 days were observed for absolute lymphocyte counts (mean 0.60 vs 1.11 × 109/L, respectively, p < 0.0001) and C-reactive protein (mean 31.5 vs 5.8 mg/L, respectively, p < 0.0001).Overall survival at 1 month was 79.5% (95% CI 68.7–90.3). Oxygen-support requirements improved and overall mortality was 13.6%. Confirmation of the efficacy of canakinumab for Covid-19 warrants further study in randomized controlled trials.
Objectives. To investigate the effect of the cause of acute respiratory failure and the role of comorbidities both acute and chronic on the outcome of COPD patients admitted to Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) with acute respiratory failure and treated with NIV. Design. Observational prospective study. Patients and Methods. 176 COPD patients consecutively admitted to our RICU over a period of 3 years and treated with NIV were evaluated. In all patients demographic, clinical, and functional parameters were recorded including the cause of acute respiratory failure, SAPS II score, Charlson comorbidity index, and further comorbidities not listed in the Charlson index. NIV success was defined as clinical improvement leading to discharge to regular ward, while exitus or need for endotracheal intubation was considered failure. Results. NIV outcome was successful in 134 patients while 42 underwent failure. Univariate analysis showed significantly higher SAP II score, Charlson index, prevalence of pneumonia, and lower serum albumin level in the failure group. Multivariate analysis confirmed a significant predictive value for pneumonia and albumin. Conclusions. The most important determinants of NIV outcome in COPD patients are the presence of pneumonia and the level of serum albumin as an indicator of the patient nutritional status.
In tracheotomized difficult to wean subjects the decrease of the tracheotomy tube size was associated with an increased PTP(di), f/V(T), and TT(di), that were otherwise normal, using a higher diameter. The in vitro study showed that the resistances increased similarly for tracheotomy tube and endotracheal tube, decreasing the diameter and increasing the flows.
In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients the presence of missense polymorphisms (SNP) in members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family or their genetic association could influence the binding affinity of natural ligands, modifying the expression and the behavior of the correlated genes. EGFR family members are particularly involved in the epithelial injury and fibrotic process in IPF. Genetic variations in HER family of receptors may alter the possible therapeutic efficacy of EGFR inhibitors. This study aimed to analyze the relationships between IPF and specific EGF receptor family functional polymorphisms. We tested the presence of common EGFR, HER2 and HER3 non-synonymous SNPs in the peripheral blood of 20 Italian IPF patients and their association with the disease. Our data indicated that the HER2 variant allele frequency was significantly lower in patients than in controls, with an odds ratio of 0.31 (95% CI 0.080, 0.98). Our finding suggests that HER2 variant could be a protective factor against IPF onset.
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