Children and adolescents are not indifferent to the dramatic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the need to be forced to live in confinement. The change in life to which they have been abruptly subjected forces us to understand the state of their mental health in order to adequately address both their present and future needs. The present study was carried out with the intention of studying the consequences of confinement on anxiety, sleep routines and executive functioning of 1,028 children and adolescents, aged from 6 to 18 years, residing in Spain to; assess if there are differences regarding these consequences in terms of sex and age; how anxiety affects executive functioning in males and females; and to examine the possible correlations between the measured variables. For this purpose, an online questionnaire containing five sections was designed: the first section gathers information on sociodemographic and health data, while the following sections gather information from different standardized scales which measure anxiety, sleep and executive functions, whose items were adapted in order to be completed by parents, and/or legal guardians. The statistical analyzes carried out highlights significant differences in executive functioning between males and females. In turn, in regards to age, greater difficulties were detected in anxiety in the 9 to 12 age group and greater sleep disturbances between 13 and 18 year olds. On the other hand, significant differences were found in intra-sexual executive functioning depending on whether they presented greater or lesser anxiety, with executive functioning being more tendentiously maladjusted in males than in females, revealing a significantly relevant effect size (p = 0.001; ω2 = 0.27 BRIEF-2; ω2 = 0.19 BDEFS-CA; 95%). Positive correlations are obtained between state anxiety and sleep and executive functioning alterations. Finally, through Path Analysis, it is verified that state anxiety is the variable with the greatest weight within the model that would explain the alteration in the executive functioning of the present sample.
Methodological guidelines for virtual teaching during the lockdown, tailored to Flipped Classroom, are suggested by the Spanish University Education System. This educational methodology is recommended as an effective method for distance learning due to COVID-19 by several articles, studies, research, universities and institutions in different countries around the world. However, what is the impact of these extreme circumstances on the implementation of Flipped Classroom in Higher Education? The study design is a descriptive and correlational research that compares the frequency of the implementation of Flipped Classroom before and during social distancing. This information is provided by the participants, university professors from the Faculty of Education Sciences of the University of Malaga, through an ad hoc questionnaire. The results reveal a significant increase in the frequency of Flipped Classroom sessions (z = −4.80; p <.001) during the lockdown. The data also show a significant increase in the quantity and variety of didactic resources (t = −2.390; p = 0.021), mainly those related to Flipped Classroom, with video (z = −2.860, p = 0.004) and audio (z = −2.049, p = 0.040) files. University professors consider virtual teaching during the lockdown an opportunity for Flipped Classroom and digital skills that could improve the quality of university educational methodology.
. Aprendizaje de contenidos académicos y desarrollo de competencias profesionales mediante prácticas didácticas centradas en el trabajo cooperativo y relaciones multidisciplinares. Revista de Investigación Educativa, 33(1)
The outbreak and the quick expansion of SARS-CoV-2, from December 2019 to today, has forced countries around the world to resolve virus containment measures in order to slow down the contagion curve. Between these measures, the situation of lockdown, and the isolation or limitation of social contact between the citizens, there has been an unknown psychological impact. Certain groups (the elderly, children and teenagers, and the clinical population, for instance) arouse serious fears among professionals due to their greater vulnerability and ignorance regarding the short- and long-term consequences. The main purposes of this work are first of all to evaluate the consequences of the lockdown in children and teenagers diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleep-related problems, and problems with executive functions. Secondly, we aim to compare the effects produced with respect to the previously mentioned variables with normotypic subjects; that is to say, between a group that was subject to lockdown and another group that was not confined. The findings show that the clinic confined group had high levels of state anxiety and problems with sleep and executive functions; differences could also be seen between the two groups, with the confined ADHD group being more negatively affected in all measured variables.
El presente estudio trata, mediante una serie de innovaciones en la práctica docente, el cómo mejorar la calidad del aprendizaje del alumnado del grado de magisterio, al tiempo que se trabajan habilidades necesarias para facilitar su crecimiento personal de cara al mundo laboral. La investigación radica en aplicar en tres grupos/aula, diferentes estrategias pedagógicas. Finalizado el periodo de docencia, los tres grupos se exponen a una misma prueba de evaluación de conocimiento, lo que permite comparar los resultados entre grupos, según el método empleado. De los resultados obtenidos, se puede afirmar que el trabajo cooperativo guiado puede conseguir un adecuado rendimiento a nivel de adquisición de conocimientos teóricos en comparación con la clase magistral y el estudio memorístico. Al mismo tiempo, la evaluación formativa logra que los alumnos se impliquen mucho más en relación con sus responsabilidades personales, con una mejora en los procesos y resultados de aprendizaje. Por último, la percepción subjetiva del alumnado hacia estas estrategias pedagógicas es que son más positivas para su aprendizaje que las tradicionales. Incluso, llegan a considerar que los aprendizajes adquiridos presentan unas raíces más profundas, cuando los interiorizan mediante tareas que exigen trabajo cooperativo y evaluación formativa.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered to be one of the most common disorders during children and adolescents' neurodevelopment. Given how much the individuals' executive functions are affected, the objective of the present study was to verify the validity of the Neuropsychological Assessment of Executive Functions battery for Children (ENFEN for its acronym in Spanish) as a predictor in the diagnosis of ADHD. The sample consisted of 175 participants from southeast Spain of both sexes aged between 6 and 12 (clinical M=8.39, SD=1.87, and control M=8.78, SD=1.91). The clinical group was composed of 89 (79.50%) males and 23 (20.50%) females, and the control group consisted of 37 (58.70%) males and 26 (41.30%) females. ENFEN is an individual applications battery that allows the executive functions to be globally evaluated using a wide range of elements. We followed a non-experimental research design for this comparative descriptive study. The results indicate that the phonological fluency, colour naming path, and interference scales are closely associated with the diagnosis of ADHD as they provide data on elements including inhibition, mental flexibility, sustained and selective attention, verbal fluency, and working memory. In general, this study supports the usefulness and validity of the ENFEN battery as a tool to clinically diagnose ADHD.
Objective The objective was to determine if Spanish foster care children and Spanish non-foster children differ on sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT), ADHD-inattention (IN), ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), limited prosocial emotions (LPE), anxiety, depression, social and academic impairment measures and if the duration of foster care predicts a reduction in symptom and impairment differences between foster and non-foster care children. Method Foster care parents of 49 children (8 to 13 years, 57% girls) and non-foster care mothers and fathers of 1776 children (8 to 13 years, 49% girls) completed the Child and Adolescent Behavior Inventory (CABI). Results Foster care children had significantly higher scores on all symptom and impairment measures than non-foster care mother and father groups (d values from 0.37 to 1.53). A longer duration in foster care (range 8 to 86 months) was also associated with significant lower scores on SCT, ADHD-IN, anxiety, depression, and academic impairment. In addition, while foster care children with a shorter duration in foster care (less than medium months) had significantly higher scores than the non-foster care groups on all measures (d values from 0.66 to 2.25), children with a longer duration in foster care did not differ from the non-foster care groups on anxiety, depression, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, LPE, social and academic impairment. Conclusions Although foster care children had elevated psychopathology and impairment scores relative to non-foster care children, a longer stay in foster care was associated with the elimination of the difference on most symptom and impairment measures.
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