This article describes the current state-of-the-art technique of percutaneous transplant renal biopsy. A brief overview of the history of transplant renal biopsy is given. The indications and contraindications are discussed, including pre- and postprocedure patient management. The technique of the procedure and the devices that are available in the market are described.
This study aims to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a single vendor commercially available CT perfusion (CTP) software in predicting stroke. A retrospective analysis on patients presenting with stroke-like symptoms within 6 h with CTP and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed. Lesion maps, which overlays areas of computer-detected abnormally elevated mean transit time (MTT) and decreased cerebral blood volume (CBV), were assessed from a commercially available software package and compared to qualitative interpretation of color maps. Using DWI as the gold standard, parameters of diagnostic accuracy were calculated. Point biserial correlation was performed to assess for relationship of lesion size to a true positive result. Sixty-five patients (41 females and 24 males, age range 22–92 years, mean 57) were included in the study. Twenty-two (34 %) had infarcts on DWI. Sensitivity (83 vs. 70 %), specificity (21 vs. 69 %), negative predictive value (77 vs. 84 %), and positive predictive value (29 vs. 50 %) for lesion maps were contrasted to qualitative interpretation of perfusion color maps, respectively. By using the lesion maps to exclude lesions detected qualitatively on color maps, specificity improved (80 %). Point biserial correlation for computer-generated lesions (Rpb = 0.46, p < 0.0001) and lesions detected qualitatively (Rpb = 0.32, p = 0.0016) demonstrated positive correlation between size and infarction. Seventy-three percent (p = 0.018) of lesions which demonstrated an increasing size from CBV, cerebral blood flow, to MTT/time to peak were true positive. Used in isolation, computer-generated lesion maps in CTP provide limited diagnostic utility in predicting infarct, due to their inherently low specificity. However, when used in conjunction with qualitative perfusion color map assessment, the lesion maps can help improve specificity.
BAM techniques can be an effective tool to help a dialysis patient achieve an adequately mature AVF. Additional vascular interventional techniques may be utilized to further improve clinical results. For the purpose of this report we call this technique "augmented balloon-assisted maturation," or aBAM.
Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) have a cumulative risk of hemorrhage and refractory seizures. Pre-surgical Onyx embolization of cerebral AVMs improves clinical outcome. A 45-year-old man with a history of seizures was diagnosed with a Spetzler-Martin grade 4 AVM in the right occipital lobe. As per initial assessment, three to four sessions were required for adequate devascularization of the AVM before offering either surgery or gamma knife treatment. We achieved 10% and 70% devascularization in the first and second stage Onyx18 embolization respectively. Subsequent bilateral internal carotid, external carotid, vertebral and right posterior cerebral artery superselective angiography performed six weeks after the second stage of embolization demonstrated unexpected complete angiographic cure of the AVM.
After UAE, a thrombosed uterine artery appears on transvaginal sonography as an echogenic tortuous structure in the adnexa. Persistence of this white snake sign at 6 months after UAE may suggest a more favorable symptomatic outcome.
Spinal gout is not as rare as was previously thought and mimics heterogeneous spinal conditions such as rheumatoid, septic, seronegative arthropathies and primary or secondary neoplasms. Imaging findings are nonspecific and usually manifest late. In clinical settings, suspicious for spinal gout, needle biopsy may help for further characterization. A 57-year-old man with no significant past medical history presented in the emergency department with severe non radiating low back pain of one week duration. His laboratory tests were significant for uric acid of 642 μmol/L, erythrocyte sedimentation rate 93 mm/hour, and C-reactive protein 8.3 mg/dl. The lumbar spine MRI showed nonspecific acute inflammatory extensive lumbar facet arthropathy and soft tissue enhancement. The radiological and clinical information was insufficient to differentiate among septic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, seronegative arthropathy or gout. A lumbar facet fluoroscopy-fluoroscopic CT-guided needle biopsy was performed. The biopsy demonstrated negative birefringent crystals consistent with gout. Although the spinal gout is not rare, few case reports describe the role of needle biopsy and mimics. We present a comparative review of limited reports addressing the role of needle biopsy in mimics of spinal gout.
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