Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs follow a multimodal, multidisciplinary perioperative care approach that combines evidence-based perioperative strategies to accelerate the functional recovery process and improve surgical outcomes. Despite increasing evidence that supports the use of ERAS programs in gastrointestinal and pelvic surgery, data regarding the development of ERAS programs in spine surgery are scarce. To evaluate the impact of an Enhanced Recovery After Spine Surgery (ERSS) program in a US academic cancer center, the authors introduced such a program and hypothesized that ERSS would have a significant influence on meaningful clinical measures of postoperative recovery, such as pain management, postoperative length of stay (LOS), and complications.
A multimodal, multidisciplinary, continuously evolving team approach was used to develop an ERAS program for all patients undergoing spine surgery for metastatic tumors at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from April 2015 through September 2016. This study describes the introduction of that ERSS program and compares 41 patients who participated in ERSS with a retrospective cohort of 56 patients who underwent surgery before implementation of the program. The primary objectives were to assess the effect of an ERSS program on immediate postoperative pain scores and in-hospital opioid consumption. The secondary objectives included assessing the effect of ERSS on postoperative in-hospital LOS, 30-day readmission rates, and 30-day postoperative complications.
The ERSS group showed a trend toward better pain scores and decreased opioid consumption compared with the pre-ERSS group. There were no significant differences in LOS, 30-day readmission rate, or 30-day complication rate observed between the two groups.
An ERSS program is feasible and potentially effective on perioperative pain control and opioid consumption, and can expedite recovery in oncological spine surgery patients. Larger-scale research on well-defined postoperative recovery outcomes is needed.
The subcostal transverse abdominis plane (SCTAP) block is the deposition of local anesthetic in the transverse abdominis plane inferior and parallel to the costal margin. There is a growing consensus that the SCTAP block provides better analgesia for upper abdominal incisions than the traditional transverse abdominis plane block. In addition, when used as part of a four-quadrant transverse abdominis plane block, the SCTAP block may provide adequate analgesia for major abdominal surgery. The purpose of this review is to discuss the SCTAP block, including its indications, technique, local anesthetic solutions, and outcomes.
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