Objective The aim of this study was to determine the role of ultrasound in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric patients with acute abdominal pain caused by intussusceptions. Materials and methods We performed a retrospective study of all pediatric patients with acute abdominal pain caused by intussusceptions and that underwent ultrasound examination at the emergency service of the Radiology Department between November 2007 and June 2013. The role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of intussusceptions has been assessed by comparing the echographic presumptive diagnosis with the final diagnosis of discharge. Its importance in the treatment has been assessed by determining the value of ultrasound findings in the choice of the best treatment. Results The ultrasound examination was positive in 16/18 patients with a final diagnosis of intussusception. Some sonographic findings seemed to be able to predict the opportunity to resort to non-surgical therapeutic options like hydrostatic or pneumatic reduction of the intestinal segments invaginated. In our casuistry, five children presented characteristics typical of this subgroup and underwent barium enema which provided the reduction of the intestinal segments involved. The future challenge will be to perform non-surgical ultrasound-guided reductions to avoid the exposure of the infants to ionizing radiations. Conclusions Ultrasonography is essential not only in the diagnosis, but also it adds important elements in the therapeutic choice and could play in the future an important role in non-surgical reduction of intestinal intussusceptions in pediatric patients.Keywords Intussusception Á Childhood Á Sonography Riassunto Obiettivo Accertare il ruolo dell'ecografia nella diagnosi e trattamento dei pazienti pediatrici con dolore addominale acuto causato da invaginazione intestinale. Materiali e metodi Abbiamo eseguito uno studio retrospettivo su tutti i pazienti pediatrici con dolore addominale acuto causato da intussuscezione e sottoposti ad esame ecografico presso il servizio di emergenza del Dipartimento di Radiologia tra il Novembre 2007 ed il Giugno 2013. Il ruolo dell'ecografia nella diagnosi di intussuscezione è stato valutato comparando la diagnosi presuntiva ecografica con la diagnosi finale di dimissione; per ciò che concerne la sua importanza nel trattamento, ci si è basati sull'influenza dei reperti ecografici sul percorso terapeutico. Risultati Su 18 pazienti con diagnosi finale di intussuscezione l'esame ecografico è risultato positivo in 16 casi; inoltre è stato possibile osservare che alcuni reperti ecografici sembrano essere in grado di predire l'opportunità di ricorrere ad opzioni terapeutiche non chirurgiche, vale a dire riduzione idrostatica o pneumatica del segmento intestinale invaginato. Nella nostra casistica, 5 bambini hanno presentato caratteristiche tali da rientrare in questo sottogruppo, e pertanto sono stati sottoposti a clisma opaco, 123J Ultrasound (2015( ) 18:205-211 DOI 10.1007 tramite cui in 3 casi si è ottenuto lo svaginam...
While the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads all over the world, the healthcare systems are facing the dramatic challenge of simultaneously fight against the outbreak and life-threating emergencies. In this biological setting, emergency departments and neurovascular teams are exposed to high risk of infection and should therefore be prepared to deal with neurological emergencies safely. The purpose of this article is to analyze the current evidence on COVID-19 in the context of acute ischemic stroke and to describe the model of behavior we are putting into action to maintain the stroke pathway both rapid for the patient and safe for the healthcare professionals. We reserve a specific focus on personal protection equipment, dress code and healthcare professional behavior.
Objectives To retrospectively analyze interventional radiology (IR) activity changes in the COVID-19 era and to describe how to safely and effectively reorganize IR activity. Methods All IR procedures performed between January 30 and April 8, 2020 (COVID-era group) and the same 2019 period (non-COVID-era group) were retrospectively included and compared. A sub-analysis for the lockdown period (LDP: 11 March-8 April) was also conducted. Demographic, hospitalization, clinical, and procedural data were obtained for both groups and statistically compared with univariable analysis. Results A total of 1496 procedures (non-COVID era, 825; COVID era, 671) performed in 1226 patients (64.9 ± 15.1 years, 618 women) were included. The number of procedures decreased by 18.6% between 2019 and 2020 (825 vs 671, p < .001), with a reduction by 48.2% in LDP (188 vs 363, p < .0001). In the LDP COVID era, bedside procedures were preferred (p = .013), with an increase in procedures from the intensive care unit compared with the emergency department and outpatients (p = .048), and an increased activity for oncological patients (p = .003). No incidents of cross-infection of non-infected from infected patients and no evidence of COVID-19 infection of healthcare workers in the IR service was registered. Conclusions Coronavirus disease outbreak changed the interventional radiology activity with an overall reduction in the number of procedures. However, this study confirms that interventional radiology continuum of care can be safely performed also during the pandemic, following defined measures and protocols, taking care of all patients. Key Points • Coronavirus disease pandemic determined a reduction of interventional radiology activity as compared to the same period of the previous year. • Interventional radiology procedures for life-threatening conditions and non-deferrable oncologic treatments were prioritized as opposed to elective procedures. • Strict adoption of safe procedures allowed us to have until now no incidents of cross-infection of non-infected from infected patients and no evidence of COVID-19 infection of HCWs in the IR service.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Successful vessel recanalization in posterior circulation large-vessel occlusion is considered crucial, though the evidence of clinical usefulness, compared with the anterior circulation, is not still determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors of favorable clinical outcome and to analyze the effect of first-pass thrombectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A retrospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted in 10 high-volume stroke centers in Europe, including the period from January 2016 to July 2019. Only patients with an acute basilar artery occlusion or a single, dominant vertebral artery occlusion ("functional" basilar artery occlusion) who had a 3-month mRS were included. Clinical, procedural, and radiologic data were evaluated, and the association between these parameters and both the functional outcome and the firstpass effect was assessed.RESULTS: A total of 191 patients were included. A lower baseline NIHSS score (adjusted OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.96; P ¼ .025) and higher baseline MR imaging posterior circulation ASPECTS (adjusted OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.03-8.76; P ¼ .043) were predictors of better outcomes. The use of large-bore catheters (adjusted OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.08-4.67; P ¼ .030) was a positive predictor of successful reperfusion at firstpass, while the use of a combined technique was a negative predictor (adjusted OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09-0.76; P ¼ .014). CONCLUSIONS:The analysis of our retrospective series demonstrates that a lower baseline NIHSS score and a higher MR imaging posterior circulation ASPECTS were predictors of good clinical outcome. The use of large-bore catheters was a positive predictor of first-pass modified TICI 2b/3; the use of a combined technique was a negative predictor.ABBREVIATIONS: BAO ¼ basilar artery occlusion; F-P mTICI ¼ first-pass effect mTICI; IQR ¼ interquartile range; mTICI ¼ modified TICI; pc-ASPECTS ¼ posterior circulation ASPECTS; pc-LVO ¼ large-vessel occlusion of the posterior circulation P osterior circulation stroke accounts for about 20% of all ischemic stroke cases. 1,2 The etiology is variable (thromboembolic, atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, perforating vessels disease, and so forth), affecting different vascular territories; rarely, this type of stroke is due to a large-vessel occlusion of the posterior circulation (pc-LVO), representing about 1% of all acute ischemic strokes, 3,4 Acute pc-LVO carries a high risk of disabling stroke or death. In this context, designing a randomized controlled trial is challenging, and even appropriate patient selection is problematic. Successful vessel recanalization is considered crucial for survival or for improving functional outcome, 5,6 though the evidence of the clinical usefulness of endovascular
Background The superficial circumflex iliac perforator (SCIP) flap has many ideal features, such as fast dissection, possibility to harvest thin, pliable, wide skin island, and concealed donor site scar. In spite of these features, its use was limited because of the wide anatomical variation of the pedicle, which is relatively shorter and has a smaller caliber than other more popular perforator flaps. Several names were given to the branches and perforators in the literature, thus adding confusion to the understanding of its anatomy. Methods We performed a surgical and a radioanatomical study of the SCIP pedicles analyzing high-resolution contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of 95 groins, with particular attention to the deep branch (DB) of the superficial circumflex iliac artery (SCIA). Twenty-three of these patients were also studied by detecting the surgical anatomy during SCIP flap harvest. We employed a system of coordinates based on the line between pubic tubercle (PT) and anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to describe the position of the perforator of the DB. Results We found a 100% correlation between surgical and radiological findings. The length of the DB from the origin to the point in which its perforator pierced the sartorius fascia ranged from 1.6 to 6.5 cm, mean = 3.62 ± 0.92 cm. The distance between the origin of the DB and the inguinal ligament ranged from 1.1 to 7.5 cm, mean = 2.8 ± 1 cm. The perforator of the DB could be found in 91% of the cases within a box of 4 cm × 3 cm drawn caudally to the line joining the PT with the ASIS. This vessel can show a vertical or horizontal course in the subcutaneous layer. Conclusion Our findings confirm other previous studies and add new information about the position and the course of the perforator of the DB of the SCIA. Important features of the SCIP pedicles can be investigated by the color Doppler ultrasound and CT scan.
BackgroundM2 segment occlusions represent approximately one-third of non-lacunar ischemic stroke and can lead to permanent neurological deficits. Various techniques are available for mechanical thrombectomy beyond the circle of Willis, but data evaluating their effectiveness and safety are lacking.MethodsA retrospective review of patients with ischemic stroke undergoing mechanical thrombectomy for M2 occlusions from 13 centers in North American and Europe was performed. Tandem or multiple-territory occlusions were excluded. The primary outcome was 90-day modified Rankin Scale and reperfusion rates across stent-retriever, direct aspiration and combined techniques.ResultsThere were 465 patients (mean age 71.48±14.03 years, 53.1% female) with M2 occlusions who underwent mechanical thrombectomy. Stent-retriever alone was used in 133 (28.6%), direct aspiration alone in 93 (20.0%) and the combined technique in 239 (51.4%) patients. Successful reperfusion was achieved with the combined technique in 198 (82.2%; OR 2.6 (1.1–6.9)), with stent-retriever alone in 112 (84.2%; OR 9.2 (1.9–44.6)) and with direct aspiration alone in 62 (66.7%; referencecategory). Intraprocedural subarachnoid hemorrhages (iSAH) were 36 (7.7%) and were more likely to occur in patients treated with the stent-retrievers (OR 5.0 (1.1–24.3)) and combined technique (OR 4.6 (1.1–20.9)). Good clinical outcome was achieved in 260 (61.8%) patients, while 59 (14.0%) patients died. Older age, higher baseline NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale), parenchymal hemorrhage and iSAH were associated with poor outcome while successful recanalization and higher baseline ASPECTS (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score) were associated with good outcome. No differences were found among the three techniques in terms of clinical outcome.ConclusionStent-retrievers and a combined approach for M2 occlusions seem more effective than direct aspiration, but with higher rates of iSAH. This leads to no detectable difference in clinical outcome at 3 months.
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