This study describes the modulation of the ouabain-insensitive Na(+)-ATPase activity from renal proximal tubule basolateral membranes (BLM) by protein kinase C (PKC). Two PKC isoforms were identified in BLM, one of 75 kDa and the other of 135 kDa. The former correlates with the PKC isoforms described in the literature but the latter seems to be a novel isoform, not yet identified. Both PKC isoforms of BLM are functional since a protein kinase C activator, TPA, increased the total hydroxylamine-resistant 32P(i) incorporation from [gamma-32P]ATP into the BLM. In parallel, TPA stimulated the Na(+)-ATPase activity from BLM in a dose-dependent manner, the effect being reversed by the PKC inhibitor sphingosine. The stimulatory effect of TPA on Na(+)-ATPase involved an increase in the V(max) (from 13.4+/-0.6 nmol P(i) mg(-1) min(-1) to 25.2+/-1.4 nmol P(i) mg(-1) min(-1), in the presence of TPA, P<0.05) but did not change the apparent affinity for Na(+) (K(0.5)=14.5+/-2.1 mM in control and 10.0+/-2.1 mM in the presence of TPA, P>0.07). PKC involvement was further confirmed by stimulation of the Na(+)-ATPase activity by the catalytic subunit of PKC (PKC-M). Finally, the phosphorylation of an approx. 100 kDa protein in the BLM (the suggested molecular mass of Na(+)-ATPase ) was induced by TPA. Taken together, these findings indicate that PKCs resident in BLM stimulate Na(+)-ATPase activity which could represent an important mechanism of regulation of proximal tubule Na(+) reabsorption.
Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common diseases in the Western world. The disease manifests itself with intensive pain, sporadic infections, and, sometimes, renal failure. The symptoms are due to the appearance of urinary stones (calculi) which are formed mainly by calcium salts. These calcium salts precipitate in the renal papillae and/ or within the collecting ducts. Inherited forms of nephrolithiasis related to chromosome X (X-linked hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis or XLN) have been recently described. Hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and male predominance are the major characteristics of these diseases. The gene responsible for the XLN forms of kidney stones was cloned and characterized as a chloride channel called ClC-5. The ClC-5 chloride channel belongs to a superfamily of voltage-gated chloride channels, whose physiological roles are not completely understood. The objective of the present review is to identify recent advances in the molecular pathology of nephrolithiasis, with emphasis on XLN. We also try to establish a link between a chloride channel like ClC-5, hypercalciuria, failure in urine acidification and protein endocytosis, which could explain the symptoms exhibited by XLN patients.
In a previous paper, we observed that the specific activity of (Na++K+)ATPase of the isolated Malpighian tubules from Rhodnius prolixus is inhibited by protein kinase C (PKC) during hyperosmotic shock [Arenstein et al., J Membr Biol 146:47-57 ; Caruso-Neves et al., Z Naturforsch 53c:911-917 ). In the present paper, we study the involvement of the cytoskeleton in this process using isolated Malpighian tubules of Rhodnius prolixus. We observed that pre-incubation of the Malpighian tubule cells in hyperosmotic media decreases the specific activity of (Na++K+)ATPase by 90%. This effect was completely reversed when colchicine, which disrupts microtubules, or cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of actin microfilament polymerization, were added to the media in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal reversion was obtained with colchicine 7.0 microM or cytochalasin B 5.0 microM. The simultaneous addition of sphingosine 50 ng/mL, an inhibitor of PKC, to 10 microM colchicine or 5 microM cytochalasin B, in hyperosmotic media, did not change the stimulatory effect of these drugs on the specific activity of (Na++K+)ATPase. On the other hand, the co-incubation of TPA 20 ng/mL, an activator of PKC, to colchicine or cytochalasin B within hyperosmotic media, abolished the stimulatory effect of these drugs on the specific activity of (Na++K+)ATPase to a similar extent as hyperosmotic shock. These results suggest that inhibition of the (Na++K+)ATPase of the isolated Malpighian tubules from Rhodnius prolixus by PKC during hyperosmotic shock is mediated by cytoskeletal elements.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.