Our results suggest that routine early repair of pectus excavatum in patients older than 3 years of age is safe and effective. We would recommend early repair to avoid asymmetry transformation of the deformity and to enhance the patients' growth potential.
Benign esophageal tumors are uncommon, leiomyomas being the most frequent. However, esophageal schwannomas are exceedingly rare. We report here on two instances of large esophageal schwannomas treated by enucleation. A 63-year-old male and a 32-year-old female were referred to us for abnormal chest X-rays. Computed tomography of the chest documented sizeable growths in the upper thoracic esophagus, resulting in compression of membranous trachea posteriorly. By positron emission tomography, the tumors appeared hypermetabolic. In both instances, successful surgical enucleation was achieved. Histologic examination confirmed spindle cell tumors positive for S-100 protein by immunostaining.
Benign esophageal tumors are rare; complete surgical resection is essential for the management of the submucosal tumors. Larger, symptomatic, or non-diagnostic lesions should be resected for both diagnostic and therapeutic indications. Video-assisted thoracic surgery has become a popular treatment in the field of thoracic surgery; however, thoracoscopic esophageal surgery may lead to an increase in operative complications. The effect and safety of thoracoscopic surgery for esophageal submucosal lesions were evaluated. A retrospective study evaluated patients undergoing thoracoscopic treatment of benign submucosal tumors. Between March 2011 and December 2013, 17 patients underwent thoracoscopic resection of benign submucocal tumors. Intraoperative esophagoscopy was performed for tumor localization by transillumination and confirmation of mucosal integrity after enucleation in every patient. Median patient age was 47 years (range 30-65). The median surgery time was 170 minutes (range 80-429). The median tumor size was 3.8 cm (range 1.3-9). The median hospital stay was 4 days (range 2-12). There were 16 leiomyoma and 1 neurogenic tumor. There was one case of conversion to thoracotomy because of residual tumor after enucleation. Mucosal injuries occurred in three patients, two accidentally and one intentionally; each patient was treated with primary repair and confirmed integrity with flexible esophagoscopy at operating room. The small sized tumor with intraoperative esophagoscopy could be localized. Esophagoscopic assistance was necessary in eight patients to have better idea where to make myotomy. There were no major morbidities such as postoperative leakage or mortality. Esophageal submucosal tumors can be treated safely with thoracoscopic surgery. However, intraoperative esophagoscopy allows accurate tumor localization, direction of esophageal access incision, and decreases complications during VATS enucleation of esophageal submucosal tumors.
Background: Patients with small pneumothoraces are usually treated with oxygen therapy. However, evidence that oxygen therapy increases resolution rate is based on small populations with secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. Therefore, this study aimed to confirm whether oxygen therapy increases the resolution rate of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). Conclusions: Oxygen therapy increases the resolution rate of PSP. However, routine use of oxygen therapy in patients with small pneumothoraces should be considered more carefully. Well-controlled prospective studies are required to confirm the indication of oxygen therapy.
The definition of spontaneous pneumothorax is accumulation of air in the pleural space, resulting in dyspnea or chest pain. Unlike primary spontaneous pneumothorax, secondary pneumothorax can be a life-threatening condition and spontaneous healing rate is uncommon. Although surgery is the most effective treatment modality for pneumothorax, surgical management and timing is difficult where there is underlying lung disease and/or medical comorbidities. Prolonged air leakage increases the morbidity and mortality in thoracic surgery. We hypothesized that duration of air leakage before operation may lead to increase in complications. This study is a retrospective review of 155 consecutive patients with air leakage who underwent bullectomy for secondary spontaneous pneumothorax from January 2005 to July 2013. The patients were divided according to the duration of preoperative air leakage. The patients were followed-up until the time of last visit or death. Postoperative morbidity and mortality were assessed and the risk factors for complications were analyzed. The median age was 65 years (range, 52-88) with male predominance (96.13%). The median duration of preoperative air leakage was 6 days (range, 1-30). The median surgery time was 90 minutes (range, 25-300) and median hospital stay after operation was 7 days (range, 3-75). Postoperative complications occurred in 38 patients (24.52%) and postoperative recurrence was shown to have occurred in 8 patients (5.16%). With multivariate analysis, risk factors for postoperative complications were: underlying interstitial lung disease and air leakage > 5 days before operation. Persistent air leakage was a major surgical indication for pneumothorax. Early surgical treatment reduced postoperative complications for secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.
BackgroundAlthough pericardial effusion (PE) is not uncommon in patients with cancer, it may lead to cardiac tamponade, a life-threatening condition. Prompt life-saving treatment is essential, and also allows the continuation of the cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic factors for survival in patients with cancer who were treated surgically for PE.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 55 patients with cancer with PE between January 2003 and October 2012, who were treated with a pericardial window operation. Overall survival (OS) was estimated from the date of surgery, and patients were followed until the time of the final visit or time of death. Clinical outcomes and candidate prognostic factors were analyzed.ResultsThe median age of patients was 57 years (range 29 to 82 years), and 31 patients (56.4%) were male. The most common primary malignancy was lung cancer (65.5%), followed by breast cancer (10.9%). Fifteen patients (27.3%) developed recurrence of PE after surgery. The median OS duration was 4 months (range 0 to 39 months). Multivariate analysis found that evidence of pericardial metastasis on preoperative imaging (P = 0.029) and confirmation of malignant cells in the PE and/or pericardial tissue (P = 0.034) were associated with reduced OS.ConclusionEvidence of pericardial metastasis on preoperative imaging and cytopathologic confirmation that the PE and/or pericardial tissue are positive for malignant cells can be used to predict poor clinical outcomes in patients with cancer-related PE.
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