Urbanization is a phenomenon of economic and social modernization. Investigating the link between urbanization growth and CO 2 emissions is necessary and helpful for Malaysia to achieve its pollution reduction targets. Ecological modernization and augmented Cobb-Douglas production theories are used in order to gain the best understanding of interaction between CO 2 emissions and urbanization for the 1971-2015 period. This study aims to examine the relationships among CO 2 emissions, urbanization growth, energy consumption, GDP, domestic investment, and financial development. The F-bounds test and VECM Granger causality are utilized. The dynamic relationship among variables and the inverted U-shaped relationship between CO 2 emissions and urbanization in the long run are examined. The elasticity of CO 2urbanization is found positive elastic in the early stage of urbanization, but it turns to negative inelastic at the higher urbanization stage. Furthermore, the unidirectional causality from urbanization to CO 2 emissions in the short run are at a 1 percent level of significance, and the bidirectional causality between CO 2 emissions and urbanization is at a 5 percent level of significance in the long run. Also, we captured bidirectional causality among energy consumption, domestic investment, GDP, CO 2 emissions, and unidirectional causality from financial development to CO 2 emissions at least at a 5 percent level of significance. These findings could support policymakers in managing urbanization development and considering clean investment and other green aspects for urban sustainable development, which can save many people from natural disaster.
The current paper conducts an empirical examination into the long-run and short-run equilibrium relationships between macroeconomic variables and the Malaysian stock market index (SMI) for the 1977-2011 period. Specifically, it employs Ng and Perron (NP) bounds statistics test to detect the boundaries of variables stationarity. Subsequently, the co-integrating relationships among variables are tested using the bounds F-statistic test. Eventually, the long-run and short-run equilibrium relationships are analyzed using Pesaran, Shin, and Smith (PSS) bounds tests Approach. The results indicate that all macroeconomic variables are co-integrated with SMI. Besides, understanding the long-run and short-run equilibrium relationships between macroeconomic variables and SMI could be highly appreciable from the perspectives of policymakers, financial economists, domestic and international investors dealing with Malaysian stock market.
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