International audienceReflectance Transformation Imaging is a recent technique allowing for the measurement and the modeling of one of the most influential parameters on the appearance of a surface, namely the angular reflectance, thanks to the change in the direction of the lighting during acquisition. From these photometric stereo images (discrete data), the angular reflectance is modeled to allow both interactive and continuous relighting of the inspected surface. Two families of functions, based on polynomials and on hemispherical harmonics, are cited and used in the literature at this aim, respectively, associated to the PTM and HSH techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel method called Discrete Modal Decomposition (DMD) based on a particular and appropriate Eigen basis derived from a structural dynamic problem. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the PTM and HSH results on three real surfaces showing different reflection behaviors. Comparisons are made in terms of both visual rendering and of statistical error (local and global). The obtained results show that the DMD is more efficient in that it allows for a more accurate modeling of the angular reflectance when light-matter interaction is complex such as the presence of shadows, specularities and inter-reflections
Controlling surface appearance has become essential in the supplier/customer relationship. In this context, many industries have implemented new methods to improve the sensory inspection, particularly in terms of variability. A trend is to develop both hardware and methods for moving towards the automation of appearance inspection and analysis. If devices inspired from dimensional control solutions generally allow to identify defects far apart the expected quality of products, it do not allow to quantify finely appearance anomalies, and decide on their acceptance. To adress this issue, new methods devoted to appearance modelling and rendering have been implemented, such as the Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) technique. By varying the illumination positions, the RTI technique aims at enriching the classical information conveyed by images. Thus each pixel is described by a set of values rather than one value classically; each value corresponding to a specific illumination position. This set of values could be interpolated or approximated by a continuous model (function), associated to the reflectance of the pixel, generally based on a second order polynomial (namely, Polynomial Texture Mapping Technique). This paper presents a new approach to evaluate this information from RTI acquisitions. A modal projection based on dynamics (Discrete Modal Decomposition) is used to estimate surface reflectance on each measurement point. After presenting the acquisition device, an application on an industrial surface is proposed in order to validate the approach, and compare it to the more classical polynomial transformation. Results show that the proposed projection basis not only provides closer assessment of surface reflectance (modelling) but also yields to a more realistic rendering.
This article introduces an innovative method for the multi-scale analysis of high value-added surfaces, which consists of applying a method based on a new parameterization. This kind of surface parameterization refers to natural modes of vibration, and is therefore named modal parameterization. It allows us to characterize the form, waviness and roughness defects of a surface. This parameterization opens up new fields of analysis, such as the appearance quality of surfaces. It is thereby possible to decompose a measured surface in a vector basis, of which vectors are represented by plane natural eigenmodes sorted by frequency and complexity. Different filtering operations can then be produced, such as extracting the primary form of the surface. To analyze the perceived quality of surfaces, these investigations focus on two approaches: that appearance defects have small periodicity, and that there is a link between curvatures and the visual impact of an anomaly. This methodology is applied to two prestige lighters, whose surfaces were measured by extended field confocal microscopy. Moreover, a prospect of this work is to develop an augmented-reality-type monitoring tool for sensory experts.
Major challenges of micro thermal machines are the thermal insulation and mechanical tolerance in the case of sliding piston. Switching from piston to membrane in microengines can alleviate the latest and lead to planar architectures. However, the thermal isolation would call for very thick structures which are associated to too high resonant frequencies which are detrimental to the engine performances. A thermal and mechanical compromise is to be made. On the contrary, based on fluid structure interaction, using an incompressible fluid contained in a cavity sealed by deformable diaphragm it would be possible to design a thick, low frequency insulating diaphragm. The design involves a simple planar geometry that is easy to manufacture with standard microelectronics methods. An analytical fluidstructure model is proposed and theoretically validated. Experimental structures are realized and tested. The model is in agreement with the experimental results. A dimensionless model is proposed to design hybrid fluid structures for micromachines.
Highlights One major challenge of micro thermodynamics machines is to keep high temperature difference. Membrane avoids leakage and mechanical friction of piston but is not insulating and lead to too high resonant frequencies. We propose an innovative membrane architecture which allows efficient thermal isolation and low resonant frequency. We model, design and tested the fluid-structure membranes which are validated.
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