Objective Didactically describe the orbitozygomatic craniotomy made in three pieces. Method This approach was performed, from 2002 to 2011, in 49 patients admitted at Beneficência Portuguesa of São Paulo Hospital. Results Twenty-seven patients had vascular lesions and twenty-two suffered for intracranial skull base tumors. The vascular lesions varied from cavernous angiomas inside the mesencephalum, high bifurcation basilar tip aneurysms, superior cerebellar arteries aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations in the interpeduncular cistern. Skull base tumors as meningiomas, interpeduncular hamartomas and third ventricle floor gliomas were among the neoplastic lesions approached. We had no permanent injuries and minimal transient complications had occurred. Conclusion It is a descriptive text, organized in the sequence of the main stages in which such a craniotomy is performed, describing in details the technique in which this group of evolutionarily authors came to accomplish the task.
Introduction Gangliogliomas are tumors commonly found in the temporal lobe and related to seizures; their appearance in the pineal region is rarely described. This report characterizes the first case of anaplastic ganglioglioma of the pineal region. Case Report The authors describe the case of a 32-year-old woman that developed progressive headache. An MRI investigation revealed a pineal tumor. The patient tested negative for biomarkers and underwent surgery through supracerebellar infratentorial approach and achieved gross total resection of the tumor in a challenging location. Pathological analysis revealed a biphasic neoplasm with the following two distinct phenotypes in separate fields: an immature neuronal component with several atypical mitoses and a mature astrocytic component with bipolar cells, microcysts, and eosinophilic bodies. The Ki67/MIB1 proliferation index was 20-30% in localized hotspots. Based on the pathological findings, the tumor was defined as an anaplastic ganglioglioma World Health Organization (WHO) grade III. Discussion/Conclusion Gangliogliomas are classified as glioneural neoplasms based on the histologic findings described as a mixture of neoplastic astrocytes and neurons. Moreover, these tumors represent 0.4-1.3% of tumors of the central nervous system. Authors describe de novo anaplastic ganglioglioma as 1% of the largest series. Gross total resection and adjuvant treatment may play important role in patients' prognostic. In this case, due to the malignant anaplastic component of her tumor, the patient received treatment with temozolamide and radiotherapy after gross total resection of the lesion.
Infectious complications of the central nervous system secondary to endovascular procedures have rarely been reported. However, the number of complications has grown exponentially owing to the popularization of these procedures. The success rate of these procedures varies with the pathology, the patient, and surgical performance. Although brain abscesses have been extensively reported, their presence after endovascular procedures has not been described in detail in the literature. We present a case of brain abscess induced by embolization of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), discuss the main indications, techniques, procedural complications, and review the associated literature.
A 13-year-old boy presented to us with a history of hemorrhagic stroke secondary to a cerebral AVM rupture. He underwent incomplete AVM resection (2014), with subsequent incomplete embolization (2017), and permanence of the endovenous catheter as a procedural complication. Physical examination revealed purulent exudate through the cervical surgical wound. We performed cervicotomy to remove the catheter but had no success in removing the intracranial material segment. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with a brain abscess (2018) and treated with antibiotics. Our team performed resection of the residual AVM, abscess, and the catheter-associated with the region.
The patient showed significant clinical improvement after surgical resection of the malformation. No residual lesions were observed in the imaging examinations. Further, we reviewed the literature to find other cases of similar complications and their association with the endovascular procedure. We did not find complications in patients younger than the one presented in this case. Factors such as incomplete embolisation increase the risk of unfavourable outcomes.
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