The weighted average success rate of tympanic closure was 86.6%. Based on this meta-analysis, pediatric surgery has a 5.8% higher failure rate than adults and there is no correlation between follow-up period and success. Other variables associated with improved closure rates include perforation with a size less than 50% of total area (improved by 6.1%) and the use of cartilage as a graft (improved by 2.8% compared with fascia), while ears that were operated on while still discharging, those in different locations of the pars tensa, or using different surgical approaches or techniques did not have significantly different outcomes.
Established cardiovascular disease and individual and combined cardiovascular disease risk factors were found to be associated with hearing loss. Future research should prospectively investigate whether targeting cardiovascular disease can prevent hearing loss.
Inadequate margins in breast-conserving surgery (BCS) are associated with an increased likelihood of local recurrence of breast cancer. Currently, approximately 20% of BCS patients require repeat surgery due to inadequate margins at the initial operation. Implementation of an accurate, intraoperative margin assessment tool may reduce this re-excision rate. This study determined, for the first time, the diagnostic accuracy of quantitative micro-elastography (QME), an optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based elastography technique that produces images of tissue microscale elasticity, for detecting tumor within 1 mm of the margins of BCS specimens. Simultaneous OCT and QME were performed on the margins of intact, freshly excised specimens from 83 patients undergoing BCS and on dissected specimens from 7 patients undergoing mastectomy. The resulting three-dimensional images (45 Â 45 Â 1 mm) were coregistered with postoperative histology to determine tissue types present in each scan. Data from 12 BCS patients and the 7 mastectomy patients served to build a set of images for reader training. One hundred and fifty-four subimages (10 Â 10 Â 1 mm) from the remaining 71 BCS patients were included in a blinded reader study, which resulted in 69.0% sensitivity and 79.0% specificity using OCT images, versus 92.9% sensitivity and 96.4% specificity using elasticity images. The quantitative nature of QME also facilitated development of an automated reader, which resulted in 100.0% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity. These results demonstrate high accuracy of QME for detecting tumor within 1 mm of the margin and the potential for this technique to improve outcomes in BCS.Significance: An optical imaging technology probes breast tissue elasticity to provide accurate assessment of tumor margin involvement in breast-conserving surgery.
Objective To evaluate the recent developments in optical coherence tomography (OCT) for tympanic membrane (TM) and middle ear (ME) imaging and to identify what further development is required for the technology to be integrated into common clinical use. Data Sources PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. Review Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed for English language articles published from January 1966 to January 2018 with the keywords "tympanic membrane or middle ear,""optical coherence tomography," and "imaging." Conclusion Conventional imaging techniques cannot adequately resolve the microscale features of TM and ME, sometimes necessitating diagnostic exploratory surgery in challenging otologic pathology. As a high-resolution noninvasive imaging technique, OCT offers promise as a diagnostic aid for otologic conditions, such as otitis media, cholesteatoma, and conductive hearing loss. Using OCT vibrometry to image the nanoscale vibrations of the TM and ME as they conduct acoustic waves may detect the location of ossicular chain dysfunction and differentiate between stapes fixation and incus-stapes discontinuity. The capacity of OCT to image depth and thickness at high resolution allows 3-dimensional volumetric reconstruction of the ME and has potential use for reconstructive tympanoplasty planning and the follow-up of ossicular prostheses. Implications for Practice To achieve common clinical use beyond these initial discoveries, future in vivo imaging devices must feature low-cost probe or endoscopic designs and faster imaging speeds and demonstrate superior diagnostic utility to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. While such technology has been available for OCT, its translation requires focused development through a close collaboration between engineers and clinicians.
Post-operative dysphagia is the most common complication following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), with reports varying from 1% to 79%. We report a case of a 63-year-old female patient complaining of dysphagia presenting 9 years post surgery. The cause of dysphagia is often multifactorial with the true aetiology poorly understood. One potentially life-threatening cause of post-operative dysphagia is hardware migration associated with pharyngoesophageal perforation. This patient presents a unique case of a conservatively managed hardware migration with delayed onset dysphagia after 8 years of minimal symptoms. On further investigation, barium swallow identified a freely mobile screw in the oesophageal submucosa, rotating on swallowing. Retrieval of the screw was achieved transcervically with no visible perforation and resolution of dysphagia occurred 1 week post-operatively. Understanding the aetiology with early diagnosis and appropriate management of delayed hardware migration are paramount in reducing patient morbidity and potential life-threatening otolaryngologic complications.
Learning Objectives: Introduction: Early congenital cholesteatoma is often undiagnosed and usually presents only when the tympanic membrane is breached and the ear chronically discharges. Early detection and intervention of congenital cholesteatoma should intuitively allow better surgical outcomes. Otitis media with effusion could be an early indicator of underlying cholesteatoma and children presenting with persistent unilateral effusion should be investigated. Method: Over a 5-year period from 1st March 2009 to 1st March 2014 every child with a persistent unilateral conductive loss, flat tympanometry for 6 months and normal tympanic membrane was listed for insertion of a ventilation tube. At follow up audiological evaluation, any child with persistent hearing loss underwent CT scanning to investigate for cholesteatoma and exploratory mastoid surgery where CT findings were suggestive.
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