The space charge features of cable insulation peelings are investigated under ac stress as a function of electrical aging imposed previously on cable sections. The investigated samples are 230-μm-thick peelings of crosslinked polyethylene cable insulation. The space charge profiles are resolved into 32 symmetric phase angles under 50 Hz ac stress. The space charge density in the phase angle of maximum applied field is the largest, as expected, but does not change visibly as a function of aging time. A method that involves averaging space charge in all phases is proposed. The all-phase averaged space charge, which appears in essence as stationary charge, exhibits an obvious increasing trend with stressing time. The aging characteristics of space charge formed under ac stress are investigated considering the all-phase averaged profiles, and the mechanical properties and degree of crosslinking are characterized as complementary methods. The change in the accumulation of space charge under ac stress follows opposite trends unlike the degree of crosslinking, which means that space charge under ac stress has a close relationship with defect concentration in cable insulation. This research contributes to the understanding of space charge features under ac conditions and the understanding of the ac aging principle of cable insulation. Index Terms-Space charge, XLPE insulation, ac, aging, cable Dongxin He was born in Weifang City, China, in 1990. He received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Shandong University. He then enrolled in North China Electric Power University in Beijing and obtained the Ph.D. degree. In 2015, he travelled to the Laboratory of Plasma and Energy Conversion (LAPLACE) in Toulouse, France, as a visiting scholar. Currently, he is a lecturer in Shandong University, Jinan, China. As a researcher, His current research interests include condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of power equipment, space charge in polymer materials especially in cable insulation under ac stress. Xiaoran Wang was born Jinan, China. He received the B.S. degree from Shandong University, Jinan, China, in 2017. He is currently pursuing the master's degree in electrical engineering in Shandong University,Shandong,China.His current research interests include space charge in polymer materials.
When high-voltage direct current (HVDC) cables are subjected to a direct current(DC)superimposed pulsed electric stress, the pulsed voltage applied facilitates electrical tree generation and breakdown; however, the mechanism involved remains unclear. To study the deterioration mechanism of cable insulation under a pulsed electric field, an experiment on the dynamic characteristics of space charge under a DC-superimposed pulsed electric field was conducted. For this experiment, a pulsed time trigger control circuit was developed to accurately measure the change law of the space charge in cross-linked polyethylene samples at the rising and falling edges of the pulsed electric field. The experimental results showed an unusual change law: the space charge density increases with falling voltage amplitude and decreases with rising voltage amplitude. The sudden change in the electric field breaks the balance of the forces acting on the space charge, leading to injection, extraction and migration. The energy released during these dynamic processes may destroy the microstructure of the insulation material and contributes to the growth of the electrical tree. This study provides an insight on the initiation mechanism of electrical tree in HVDC cables and proposes a strategy to suppress electrical tree initiation. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
Anti-pollution flashover of insulator is important for power systems. In recent years, haze-fog weather occurs frequently, which makes discharge occurs easily on the insulator surface and accelerates insulation aging of insulator. In order to study the influence of haze-fog on the surface discharge of room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber, an artificial haze-fog lab was established. Based on four consecutive years of insulator contamination accumulation and atmospheric sampling in haze-fog environment, the contamination configuration appropriate for RTV-coated surface discharge test under simulation environment of haze-fog was put forward. ANSYS Maxwell was used to analyze the influence of room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface attachments on electric field distribution. The changes of droplet on the polluted room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface and the corresponding surface flashover voltage under alternating current (AC), direct current (DC) positive polar (+), and DC negative polar (−) power source were recorded by a high speed camera. The results are as follows: The main ion components from haze-fog atmospheric particles are NO 3 − , SO 4 2− , NH 4 + , and Ca 2+ . In haze-fog environment, both the equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD) and non-soluble deposit density (NSDD) of insulators are higher than that under general environment. The amount of large particles on the AC transmission line is greater than that of the DC transmission line. The influence of DC polarity power source on the distribution of contamination particle size is not significant. After the deposition of haze-fog, the local conductivity of the room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface increased, which caused the flashover voltage reduce. Discharge is liable to occur at the triple junction point of droplet, air, and room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface. After the deformation or movement of droplets, a new triple junction point would be formed, which would seriously reduce the dielectric strength of room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber.
A combined model based on improved information entropy and vague support vector machine (IVSVM) is introduced into transformer fault diagnosis using dissolved gas analysis in oil (DGA). The improved information entropy method is used to obtain the weights of each gas and to weight the raw data, and the processed training data and the corresponding fault types are inputted into the vague support vector machine (VSVM) model to obtain classifiers. Firstly, the training data are weighted by the improved information entropy method to discretise the original data from the mixed state for subsequent classifier training. Then, the vague set divides the events into true, false and unknown factors, which can optimise the sub-interface of SVM and improve the accuracy of the boundary point classification. Finally, fault data from the literature and actual collections are selected for training and testing. By comparing with the widely used ratio method and artificial intelligence method, it can be concluded that the method described herein can effectively improve the accuracy of fault diagnosis. The result shows that this method has better applicability when facing actual fault type classification with higher data similarity.This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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