Abstract-The aim of this study was to explore the effects of the renin inhibitor aliskiren in streptozotocin-diabetic TG(mRen-2)27 rats. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro the effect of aliskiren on the interactions between renin and the (pro)renin receptor and between aliskiren and prorenin. Aliskiren distributed extensively to the kidneys of normotensive (non)diabetic rats, localizing in the glomeruli and vessel walls after 2 hours exposure. In diabetic TG(mRen-2)27 rats, aliskiren (10 or 30 mg/kg per day, 10 weeks) lowered blood pressure, prevented albuminuria, and suppressed renal transforming growth factor-␤ and collagen I expression versus vehicle. Aliskiren reduced (pro)renin receptor expression in glomeruli, tubules, and cortical vessels compared to vehicle (in situ hybridization). In human mesangial cells, aliskiren (0.1 mol/L to 10 mol/L) did not inhibit binding of 125 I-renin to the (pro)renin receptor, nor did it alter the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 by renin (20 nmol/L) preincubated with aliskiren (100 nmol/L) or affect gene expression of the (pro)renin receptor. Evidence was obtained that aliskiren binds to the active site of prorenin. The above results demonstrate the antihypertensive and renoprotective effects of aliskiren in experimental diabetic nephropathy. The evidence that aliskiren can reduce in vivo gene expression for the (pro)renin receptor and that it may block prorenin-induced angiotensin generation supports the need for additional work to reveal the mechanism of the observed renoprotection by this renin inhibitor. Key Words: aliskiren Ⅲ renin inhibitor Ⅲ TG(mRen-2)rat Ⅲ diabetic nephropathy Ⅲ (pro)renin receptor A central role for the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is widely accepted, based largely on the attenuation of DN by angiotensin (Ang) converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) 1 and Ang II receptor blockers (ARB). 2 However, these agents do not halt renal decline, possibly because of insufficient suppression of the intrarenal RAAS. Theoretically, agents that more effectively suppress the RAAS should confer improved tissue protection over current treatments for DN. Renin inhibitors, by acting at the point of activation of the RAAS cascade, may represent such agents. Aliskiren is a potent inhibitor of human renin; it lowers blood pressure (BP) in patients with mild-moderate hypertension 3,4 and shows cardiorenal protection in hypertensive double transgenic rats expressing human genes for renin and angiotensinogen. 5
Learning embedding functions, which map semantically related inputs to nearby locations in a feature space supports a variety of classification and information retrieval tasks. In this work, we propose a novel, generalizable and fast method to define a family of embedding functions that can be used as an ensemble to give improved results. Each embedding function is learned by randomly bagging the training labels into small subsets. We show experimentally that these embedding ensembles create effective embedding functions. The ensemble output defines a metric space that improves state of the art performance for image retrieval on CUB-200-2011, Cars-196, In-Shop Clothes Retrieval and VehicleID. Code is available at:
An immunoconjugate between doxorubicin and anti-(carcinoembryonic antigen) (CEA) was prepared by using aminodextran (M(r) = 40,000) as the intermediate carrier, and the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody as the linking site. The resulting immunoconjugate was subjected to an in vitro evaluation for the internalization on the target cells (Lo Vo), and compared to that of unconjugated antibody, as well as the cellular uptake of unconjugated doxorubicin. The internalization was evaluated microscopically by following the translocation of the red fluorescence of doxorubicin and the green fluorescence of the fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled goat anti-(mouse Ig) antibody, which visualizes the location of the primary mouse antibody. Anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (NP-4) was found to internalize into Lo Vo cells. The immunoconjugate made with this antibody was similarly internalized, and the doxorubicin was found to distribute with the primary antibody. The cell surface and cytoplasm were the major compartments of their distribution. These results indicate that the drug molecules were indeed delivered into the cells by the antibody as an intact conjugate. Unconjugated doxorubicin, on the contrary, was quickly absorbed by the cells and concentrated in the nucleus within 30 min, and never showed a distribution in the cytoplasm or cell membrane as in the nucleus by this procedure. The intermediate drug conjugate, doxorubicin-dextran, did not show internalization. The internalization of NP-4 antibody (or the doxorubicin conjugate) was also confirmed by studying the intracellular catabolism of the cell-bound antibody (or conjugate). The release of the degraded antibody by the cells, as differentiated by trichloroacetic acid precipitation techniques, was considered an indication of internalization. Lysosomes were involved in the degradation, since the process was markedly inhibited in the presence of the lysosomal enzyme inhibitor, ammonium chloride.
Background: Precise measurement of plant traits with precision and speed on large populations has emerged as a critical bottleneck in connecting genotype to phenotype in genetics and breeding. This bottleneck limits advancements in understanding plant genomes and the development of improved, high-yielding crop varieties.Results: Here we demonstrate the application of deep learning on proximal imaging from a mobile field vehicle to directly score plant morphology and developmental stages in wheat under field conditions. We developed and trained a convolutional neural network with image datasets labeled from expert visual scores and used this 'breeder-trained' network to directly score wheat morphology and developmental stages. For both morphological (awned) and phenological (flowering time) traits, we demonstrate high heritability and extremely high accuracy against the 'ground-truth' values from visual scoring. Using the traits scored by the network, we tested genotype-to-phenotype association using the deep learning phenotypes and uncovered novel epistatic interactions for flowering time. Enabled by the time-series highthroughput phenotyping, we describe a new phenotype as the rate of flowering and show heritable genetic control.Conclusions: We demonstrated a field-based high-throughput phenotyping approach using deep learning that can directly score morphological and developmental phenotypes in genetic populations. Most powerfully, the deep learning approach presented here gives a conceptual advancement in high-throughput plant phenotyping as it can potentially score any trait in any plant species through leveraging expert knowledge from breeders, geneticist, pathologists and physiologists.
The successful clinical experience with antibody LL2 (an IgG2a, anti-B-cell lymphoma antibody) in radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy suggests that this antibody may have potential as a carrier of cytotoxic agents. The internalization, cellular trafficking, and catabolism of this antibody in target human Burkitt lymphoma cells (Raji) were investigated. Internalization of intact antibody as well as of the F(ab')2 and Fab' fragments was detected by an FITC-labeled anti-mouse second antibody probe, and evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Internalization of intact IgG (or the fragments) was observed as early as 5 min after incubation at 37 degrees C. Initially, the internalized antibodies were present as micro-particles inside the cell membrane, and were translocated to the lysosomal compartment within 2 hr. The anatomic location of the internalized antibody, before translocation to the lysosomal compartment, was deduced by comparing the fluorescence images obtained with the antibody to those obtained with fluorescent probes with known cellular distribution in a co-internalization study. A Golgi-like compartment was found to be involved in the translocation of the antibody. Cellular catabolism of the bound antibody was studied by using 125I-labeled antibody on the target cells. At 21 h, 40% of the radioactivity was released into the supernatant as degraded fragments. The observation suggested that the antibody was degraded mainly in the lysosomes, since the degradation was significantly inhibited in the presence of lysosomal inhibitors such as ammonium chloride or leupeptin. Subcellular fractionation of Raji cells after the binding of 125I-labeled LL2 indicated that the antibody was translocated to lysosomes as evidenced by SDS-PAGE. The rate of internalization (Ke) of LL2, and the re-expression of the antigen were determined. The rapid internalization of LL2 and the re-expression of the antigen suggest that this antibody may have potential as a therapeutic immunoconjugate, since it could deliver a higher accumulation of cytotoxic agents into lymphoma cells.
CD22 antibodies (Abs) bound to B-cell lymphomas are known to be internalized and catabolized rapidly. Therefore, it would be expected that use of CD22 as a target for radioimmunotherapy should be enhanced by the use of ''residualizing'' radiolabels, which are trapped within the cell after catabolism of the Ab to which they had been conjugated. Our study was intended to evaluate this hypothesis using Ab LL2. In initial experiments, we found that LL2 binding was strongly temperature dependent, with approximately 15-fold greater binding at 37°C than at 0°C. A series of experiments suggested that this difference is due to a conformational change in the antigen at low temperature, so that the LL2 epitope is partially blocked. In vitro, residualizing labels-including 125 I-dilactitol tyramine and 111 In-DTPAwere retained by cells much longer than a conventional iodine label. In vivo, residualizing labels also showed a marked advantage in terms of uptake by Ramos B-cell lymphoma xenografts in nude mice. However, the absolute Ab uptake by xenografts was quite low, in comparison with results obtained with many carcinoma xenografts, which appears to be due in part to vascular properties of the B-cell lymphoma xenografts. Int.
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