Dosage compensation in mammals involves silencing of one X chromosome in XX females and requires expression, in cis, of Xist RNA. The X to be inactivated is randomly chosen in cells of the inner cell mass (ICM) at the blastocyst stage of development. Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the ICM of female mice have two active X chromosomes, one of which is inactivated as the cells differentiate in culture, providing a powerful model system to study the dynamics of X inactivation. Using microarrays to assay expression of X-linked genes in undifferentiated female and male mouse ES cells, we detect global up-regulation of expression (1.4- to 1.6-fold) from the active X chromosomes, relative to autosomes. We show a similar up-regulation in ICM from male blastocysts grown in culture. In male ES cells, up-regulation reaches 2-fold after 2–3 weeks of differentiation, thereby balancing expression between the single X and the diploid autosomes. We show that silencing of X-linked genes in female ES cells occurs on a gene-by-gene basis throughout differentiation, with some genes inactivating early, others late, and some escaping altogether. Surprisingly, by allele-specific analysis in hybrid ES cells, we also identified a subgroup of genes that are silenced in undifferentiated cells. We propose that X-linked genes are silenced in female ES cells by spreading of Xist RNA through the X chromosome territory as the cells differentiate, with silencing times for individual genes dependent on their proximity to the Xist locus.
In the present study, a mixture of ammonium-bicarbonate (NH(4)HCO(3)) and sodium-chloride (NaCl) particles was used as a porogen additive to fabricate highly macroporous biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds. A two-step salt-leaching process was performed after the sample had become semisolidified. Compared to the standard solvent-casting/particulate-leaching (SC/PL) technique, the processing time of this approach was significantly shorter: Instead of several days, only half a day was required. In addition, the polymer/salts/solvent mixture can be easily handled and molded into scaffolds of any specific shape-for example, thin sheet, cylindrical, or bone-shaped-for special applications in tissue engineering. Our results demonstrate that these scaffolds have a highly interconnected open-pore structure as well as greater mechanical properties than those made using the standard SC/PL technique. Primary rat osteoblasts seeded into the scaffolds exhibited good seeding efficiency. The method presented here is a promising approach for fabricating scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.
Implant-abutment assemblies are usually subject to long-term cyclic loading. To evaluate the dynamic fatigue performance of implant-abutment assemblies with different tightening torque values, thirty implant-abutment assemblies (Zimmer Dental, Carlsbad, CA, USA) were randomly assigned to three tightening groups (24 Ncm; 30 Ncm; 36 Ncm), each consisted of 10 implants. Five specimens from each group were unscrewed, and their reverse torque values recorded. The remaining specimens were subjected to a load between 30N～300N at a loading frequency of 15 Hz for 5×10 6 cycles. After fatigue tests, residual reverse torque values were recorded if available. In the 24 Ncm tightening group, all the implants fractured at the first outer thread of the implant after fatigue loading, with fatigue crack propagation at the fractured surface showed by SEM observation. For the 30 Ncm and 36 Ncm tightening groups, a statistical significant difference (p<0.05) between the unloaded and loaded groups was revealed. Compared with the unloaded specimens, the specimens went through fatigue loading had decreased reverse torque values. It was demonstrated that insufficient torque will lead to poor fatigue performance of dental implant-abutment assemblies and abutment screws should be tightened to the torque recommended by the manufacturer. It was also concluded that fatigue loading would lead to preload loss.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the abrasive wear and surface roughness of 20 currently available commercial dental composite resins, including nanofilled, supra-nanofilled, nanohybrid and microhybrid composite resins. The volume loss, maximum vertical loss, surface roughness (R a ) and surface morphology [Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)] were determined after wear. The inorganic filler content was determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The result showed that the volume loss and vertical loss varied among the materials. The coefficients of determination (R 2 ) of wear volume loss and filler content (wt%) was 0.283. SEM micrographs revealed nanofilled composites displayed a relatively uniform wear surfaces with nanoclusters protrusion, while the performance of nanohybrid composites varied. The abrasive wear resistance of contemporary dental composite resins is materialdependent and cannot be deduced from its category, filler loading and composite matrix; The abrasive wear resistance of some flowable composites is comparable to the universal/posterior composite resins.
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