We report on a self-consistent ab initio technique for modeling quantum transport properties of atomic and molecular scale nanoelectronic devices under external bias potentials. The technique is based on density functional theory using norm conserving nonlocal pseudopotentials to define the atomic core and nonequilibrium Green's functions ͑NEGF's͒ to calculate the charge distribution. The modeling of an open device system is reduced to a calculation defined on a finite region of space using a screening approximation. The interaction between the device scattering region and the electrodes is accounted for by self-energies within the NEGF formalism. Our technique overcomes several difficulties of doing first principles modeling of open molecular quantum coherent conductors. We apply this technique to investigate single wall carbon nanotubes in contact with an Al metallic electrode. We have studied the current-voltage characteristics of the nanotube-metal interface from first principles. Our results suggest that there are two transmission eigenvectors contributing to the ballistic conductance of the interface, with a total conductance GϷG 0 where G 0 ϭ2e 2 /h is the conductance quanta. This is about half of the expected value for infinite perfect metallic nanotubes.
Protein phosphorylation is estimated to affect 30% of the proteome and is a major regulatory mechanism that controls many basic cellular processes. Until recently, our biochemical understanding of protein phosphorylation on a global scale has been extremely limited; only one half of the yeast kinases have known in vivo substrates and the phosphorylating kinase is known for less than 160 phosphoproteins. Here we describe, with the use of proteome chip technology, the in vitro substrates recognized by most yeast protein kinases: we identified over 4,000 phosphorylation events involving 1,325 different proteins. These substrates represent a broad spectrum of different biochemical functions and cellular roles. Distinct sets of substrates were recognized by each protein kinase, including closely related kinases of the protein kinase A family and four cyclin-dependent kinases that vary only in their cyclin subunits. Although many substrates reside in the same cellular compartment or belong to the same functional category as their phosphorylating kinase, many others do not, indicating possible new roles for several kinases. Furthermore, integration of the phosphorylation results with protein-protein interaction and transcription factor binding data revealed novel regulatory modules. Our phosphorylation results have been assembled into a first-generation phosphorylation map for yeast. Because many yeast proteins and pathways are conserved, these results will provide insights into the mechanisms and roles of protein phosphorylation in many eukaryotes.
The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) is designed to measure the scale of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the clustering of matter over a larger volume than the combined efforts of all previous spectroscopic surveys of large-scale structure. BOSS uses 1.5 million luminous galaxies as faint as i = 19.9 over 10,000 deg 2 to measure BAO to redshifts z < 0.7. Observations of neutral hydrogen in the Lyα forest in more than 150,000 quasar spectra (g < 22) will constrain BAO over the redshift range 2.15 < z < 3.5. Early results from BOSS include the first detection of the large-scale three-dimensional clustering of the Lyα forest and a strong detection from the Data Release 9 data set of the BAO in the clustering of massive galaxies at an effective redshift z = 0.57. We project that BOSS will yield measurements of the angular diameter distance d A to an accuracy of 1.0% at redshifts z = 0.3 and z = 0.57 and measurements of H (z) to 1.8% and 1.7% at the same redshifts. Forecasts for Lyα forest constraints predict a measurement of an overall dilation factor that scales the highly degenerate D A (z) and H −1 (z) parameters to an accuracy of 1.9% at z ∼ 2.5 when the survey is complete. Here, we provide an overview of the selection of spectroscopic targets, planning of observations, and analysis of data and data quality of BOSS.
These data show that apatinib treatment significantly improved OS and PFS with an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced gastric cancer refractory to two or more lines of prior chemotherapy.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) presents the first spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This ninth data release (DR9) of the SDSS project includes 535,995 new galaxy spectra (median z ∼ 0.52), 102,100 new quasar spectra (median z ∼ 2.32), and 90,897 new stellar spectra, along with the data presented in previous data releases. These spectra were obtained with the new BOSS spectrograph and were taken between 2009 December and 2011 July. In addition, the stellar parameters pipeline, which determines radial velocities, surface temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities of stars, has been updated and refined with improvements in temperature estimates for stars with T eff < 5000 K and in metallicity estimates for stars with [Fe/H] > −0.5. DR9 includes new stellar parameters for all stars presented in DR8, including stars from SDSS-I and II, as well as those observed as part of the SDSS-III Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration-2 (SEGUE-2).
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