Early achievements in biomedical approaches for HIV prevention included physical barriers (condoms), clean injection equipment (both for medical use and for injection drug users), blood and blood product safety, and prevention of mother to child transmission. In recent years, antiretroviral drugs to reduce risk of transmission (when the infected person takes the medicines; treatment as prevention or TasP) or reduce risk of acquisition (when the seronegative person takes them; pre-exposure prophylaxis or PrEP) have proven efficacious. Circumcision of men has also been a major tool relevant for higher prevalence regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. Well-established prevention strategies in the control of sexually transmitted diseases and tuberculosis are highly relevant for HIV (i.e., screening, linkage to care, early treatment, and contact tracing). Unfortunately, only slow progress is being made in some available HIV prevention strategies such as family planning for HIV-infected women who do not want more children and prevention mother-to-child HIV transmission. Current studies seek to integrate strategies into approaches that combine biomedical, behavioral, and structural methods to achieve prevention synergies. This review identifies the major biomedical approaches demonstrated to be efficacious that are now available. We also highlight the need for behavioral risk reduction and adherence as essential components of any biomedical approach.
Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys were conducted among injection drug users (IDUs). Of 2,530 participants, 47.7% reported ever sharing needles, 78.2% having had unprotected sex in the last month, 34.4% not receiving either methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) or HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), 4.8% ever receiving MMT-only, 36.6% ever receiving VCT-only, and 24.2% ever receiving both MMT and VCT. MMT-only and the combination of MMT and VCT had significant associations with needle sharing and on unprotected sexual behaviors. Effectively integrating VCT into MMT services is a logical way to maximize the impact of both interventions on risky behaviors among IDUs.
To examine the impacts of a multi-city HIV prevention public health program (China Global Fund Round 5 Project) on condom use and HIV infection, we analyzed four yearly cross-sectional surveys from 2006 through 2009 among 20,843 men who have sex with men (MSM) in 16 Chinese cities. Self-reported condom use at last sex with a male partner increased from 58% in 2006 to 81% in 2009 (trend test, P<0.001). HIV prevalence increased from 2.3% in 2006 to 5.3% in 2009 (P<0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that self-reported receipt of interventions was an independent predictor of increased condom use at last sex with a male partner over time (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.63 in 2006 to 2.33 in 2009; P<0.001), and lower HIV prevalence (aOR, 1.08 in 2006 to 0.45 in 2009; P<0.001). HIV prevalence increased from 2006–2009 for participants with no self-reported receipt of interventions (2.1% in 2006 to 10.3% in 2009) and less so for those with interventions (2.4% to 4.7%). This Chinese public health program had positive impacts on both behaviors and disease rate among MSM population. Escalation of the coverage and intensity of effective interventions is needed for further increasing condom use and for reversing the rising trend of HIV epidemic.
ObjectiveTo describe the prevalence and predictors of condom use and sexual risk in the male clients of Hijra sex workers (HSWs) in Karachi, Pakistan.DesignCross-sectional study.SettingKarachi, Pakistan.ParticipantsClients of HSWs were recruited with assistance from HSWs and a non-governmental organisation (NGO) focused on men who have sex with men (MSM) during October–November 2010.MeasurementsThe interviewer administered the questionnaire to each participant to solicit information on demographics, HIV/AIDS knowledge/attitudes and sexual risk behaviours/practices, including condom use in the last sexual act with the HSW.ResultsOf the 203 participants, 42.4% reported that they used condoms during their last sexual act with HSW, 40% were married, 18% had ever used drugs or alcohol, and 52% reported also engaging with female sex workers in the last month. Casual HSW clients were more likely to use condoms than regular clients (adjusted OR (AOR), 2.50; 95% CI 1.34 to 4.65), as were persons with a higher education level (AOR 5.8; 95% CI 1.6 to 20.3). Drug/alcohol users and non-users were equally likely to use condoms (AOR 1.11; 95% CI 0.51 to 2.24).ConclusionClients of HSWs in Pakistan are at risk of acquiring HIV/STI infections. Concerted efforts are needed to increase condom use in this key bridge population to curtail the spread of HIV in the general population.
BackgroundThere have been inconsistent findings on the association between current drug use and HIV disease progression and virologic suppression. Drug use was often measured using self-report of historical use. Objective measurement of current drug use is preferred.MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, we assessed drug use through Computer-Assisted Self Interviews (CASI) and point-of-care urine drug screen (UDS) among 225 HIV-infected patients, and evaluated the association between current drug use and virologic suppression.ResultsAbout half (54%) of participants had a positive UDS, with a lower self-reported rate by CASI (42%) (Kappa score = 0.59). By UDS, 36.0% were positive for marijuana, 25.8% for cocaine, 7.6% for opiates, and 2.2% for methamphetamine or amphetamine. Factors associated with virologic suppression (plasma HIV RNA <50 copies/mL) were Caucasian race (P = 0.03), higher CD4 count (P < 0.01), current use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (P < 0.01), and a negative UDS (P < 0.01). Among 178 current ART users, a positive UDS remained significantly associated with lower likelihood of virologic suppression (P = 0.04).ConclusionsUDS had good agreement with CASI in detecting frequently used drugs such as marijuana and cocaine. UDS at routine clinic visits may provide “real-time” prognostic information to optimize management.
PURPOSE Cancer occurrence is increasing in Africa, although research has lagged. The objective of this review was to analyze cancer research outputs from Africa, with a particular focus on Zambia. METHODS We searched PubMed for published cancer-related articles from African countries. All articles reporting on cancer in Africa were considered. We conducted analyses to explore correlations between cancer research output and total population, gross domestic product, and new cancer cases recorded in 2020. For Zambia articles, we also analyzed cancer types and time trends. RESULTS A total of 48,487 cancer-related publications from Africa were identified, with nearly half coming from Egypt (13,372; 28%) and South Africa (9,393; 19%). Cancer research output correlated significantly with country population (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.74; P < .001) and the number of new cancer cases recorded in 2020 (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.77; P < .001). Standardized by population size, Western Sahara (0.576), Seychelles (0.244), Tunisia (0.239), South Africa (0.158), and Egypt (0.131) had the highest overall output per 1,000 population. A total of 244 publications were from Zambia; the most studied cancers were cervical (25%), Kaposi sarcoma (24%), and breast (10%). Although an increase in cancer research output from Zambia was noted, only 33% of publications were first or last authored by Zambians. The major limitation of this review is that the evaluation was based on a single electronic database, PubMed. CONCLUSION Cancer research output from Africa is very low, with many of the publications concentrated in a few countries. There is an urgent need to invest in both human resources and infrastructure to increase cancer research output from African countries, particularly in less populous countries.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.