ObjectivesThe facial bones are the most noticeable area in the human body, and facial injuries can cause significant functional, aesthetic, and psychological complications. Continuous study of the patterns of facial bone fractures and changes in trends is helpful in the prevention and treatment of maxillofacial fractures. The purpose of the current clinico-statistical study is to investigate the pattern of facial fractures over a 4-year period.Materials and MethodsA retrospective analysis of 1,824 fracture sites was carried out in 1,284 patients admitted to SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center for facial bone fracture from January 2010 to December 2013. We evaluated the distributions of age/gender/season, fracture site, cause of injury, duration from injury to treatment, hospitalization period, and postoperative complications.ResultsThe ratio of men to women was 3.2:1. Most fractures occurred in individuals aged between teens to 40s and were most prevalent at the middle and end of the month. Fractures occurred in the nasal bone (65.0%), orbital wall (29.2%), maxillary wall (15.3%), zygomatic arch (13.2%), zygomaticomaxillary complex (9.8%), mandibular symphysis (6.5%), mandibular angle (5.9%), mandibular condyle (4.9%), and mandibular body (1.9%). The most common etiologies were fall (32.5%) and assault (26.0%). The average duration of injury to treatment was 6 days, and the average hospitalization period was 5 days. Eighteen postoperative complications were observed in 17 patients, mainly infection and malocclusion in the mandible.ConclusionThis study reflects the tendency for trauma in the Seoul metropolitan region because it analyzes all facial fracture patients who visited our hospital regardless of the specific department. Distinctively, in this study, midfacial fractures had a much higher incidence than mandible fractures.
BackgroundFor proper recovery from craniofacial fracture, it is necessary to establish guidelines based on trends. This study aimed to analyze the patterns and causes of craniofacial fractures.MethodsThis retrospective study analyzed patients who underwent surgery for craniofacial fractures between 2010 and 2017 at a single center. Several parameters, including time of injury, region and cause of fracture, alcohol intoxication, time from injury to surgery, hospitalization period, and postoperative complications, were evaluated.ResultsThis study analyzed 2708 fracture lesions of 2076 patients, among whom males aged 10 to 39 years were the most numerous. The number of patients was significantly higher in the middle of a month. The most common fractures were a nasal bone fracture. The most common causes of fracture were ground accidents and personal assault, which tended to frequently cause more nasal bone fracture than other fractures. Traffic accidents and high falls tended to cause zygomatic arch and maxillary wall fractures more frequently. Postoperative complications—observed in 126 patients—had a significant relationship with the end of a month, mandible or panfacial fracture, and traffic accidents.ConclusionsThe present findings on long-term craniofacial fracture trends should be considered by clinicians dealing with fractures and could be useful for policy decisions.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s40902-018-0168-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to investigate the C-shaped root canal anatomy of mandibular second molars in a Korean population.Materials and MethodsA total of 542 teeth were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The canal shapes were classified according to a modified version of Melton's method at the level where the pulp chamber floor became discernible.ResultsOf the 542 mandibular second molars, 215 (39.8%) had C-shaped canals, 330 (53%) had 3 canals, 17 (3.3%) had 2 canals, 12 (2.2%) had 4 canals, and 8 (1.7%) had 1 canal. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 47.8% in females and 28.4% in males. Seventy-seven percent of the C-shaped canals showed a bilateral appearance. The prevalence of C-shaped canals showed no difference according to age or tooth position. Most teeth with a C-shaped canal system presented Melton's type II (45.6%) and type III (32.1%) configurations.ConclusionsThere was a high prevalence of C-shaped canals in the mandibular second molars of the Korean population studied. CBCT is expected to be useful for endodontic diagnosis and treatment planning of mandibular second molars.
This study investigated the relationship between orthodontic treatment and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in South Korean population.
This study obtained data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The final sample size was 5,567 participants who were ≥ 19 years of age. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between orthodontic treatment and TMD.
Participants who underwent orthodontic treatment showed higher educational level, lower body mass index, reduced chewing difficulty, and reduced speaking difficulty. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for orthodontic treatment and TMD were 1.614 (1.189–2.190), 1.573 (1.162–2.129) and 1.612 (1.182–2.196) after adjusting for age, sex and psychosocial factors. Adjusted ORs and their 95% CIs for orthodontic treatment and clicking were 1.778 (1.289–2.454), 1.742 (1.265–2.400) and 1.770 (1.280–2.449) after adjusting for confounding factors. However, temporomandibular joint pain and functional impairment was not associated with orthodontic treatment.
Temporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction was not associated with orthodontic treatment.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the intraoral use of subperiosteally placed self-inflating tissue expanders for subsequent bone augmentation and implant integrity. Material and methods: A prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial was performed on patients requiring alveolar bone graft for dental implant insertion. Patients were assigned to three groups: tissue expansion and tunneling graft (TET group), tissue expansion and conventional bone graft (TEG), and control group without tissue expansion. Dimensional changes of soft tissue and radiographic vertical bone gain, retention, and peri-implant marginal bone changes were evaluated and secondary outcomes; clinical complications and thickness changes of expanded overlying tissue were assessed. Results: Among 75 patients screened, a total of 57 patients were included in the final analysis. Most patients showed uneventful soft tissue expansion without any inflammatory sign or symptoms. Ultrasonographic measurements of overlying gingiva revealed no thinning after tissue expansion (p > 0.05). Mean soft vertical and horizontal tissue measurements at the end of its expansion were 5.62 and 6.03 mm, respectively. Significantly higher vertical bone gain was shown in the TEG (5.71 ± 1.99 mm) compared with that in the control patients (4.32 ± 0.97 mm; p < 0.05). Hard tissue retention— measured by bone resorption after 6 months—showed that control group showed higher amount of vertical (2.06 ± 1.00 mm) and horizontal bone resorption (1.69 ± 0.81 mm) compared to that of the TEG group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The self-inflating tissue expander effectively augmented soft tissue volume and both conventional bone graft and tunneling techniques confirmed their effectiveness in bone augmentation. With greater amount of bone gain and better 6 month hard tissue integrity, the TEG group compared to the control group—without tissue expansion—showed that the combined modality of tissue expander use and guided bone regeneration (GBR) technique may improve the outcome and predictability of hard tissue augmentation.
Pain on the soft palate and pharynx can originate in several associated structures. Therefore, diagnosis of patients who complain of discomfort in these areas may be difficult and complicated. Pterygoid hamulus bursitis is a rare disease showing various symptoms in the palatal and pharyngeal regions. As such, it can be one of the reported causes of pain in these areas. Treatment of hamular bursitis is either conservative or surgical. If the etiologic factor of bursitis is osteophytic formation on the hamulus or hypertrophy of the bursa, resection of the hamulus is usually the preferred surgical treatment. We report on a case of bursitis that was managed successfully by surgical treatment and a review of the literature.
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