Background: This study aims to examine the efficacy of clipping in thoracic sympathectomy based on electrophysiological evaluation and to investigate whether nerve conduction can be formed by collateral nerve extensions as a result of the clipping procedure to different levels of sympathetic nerve. Methods: Newly sacrificed six sheep hemithoraces were studied between August 2016 and October 2016. Thoracic sympathectomy was performed by clipping at T2, T3, T4, and T5 sympathetic chain levels and their branches. Electrophysiological studies were performed with an electromyography device and the filter range was 1 Hz with 20 µV/D amplification. Signals were processed digitally; bipolar subdermal needle electrodes were used as stimulation and recording electrodes (Ø 0.75 mm); and the ground electrode was placed in the intercostal muscle where the thoracic sympathectomy procedure would be performed. Results: Electrophysiological evaluations showed that clips placed on the main sympathetic chain branches and sympathetic nerve trunk prevented collateral impulse conduction and stimulated potentials were not recorded. However, sympathetic conduction continued at the same intensity after removal of the clips. Conclusion: Clipping of different regions of the sympathetic nerve provides electrophysiological blockage of the sympathetic nerve, and conduction continues after removal of the clips. However, the short- and long-term postoperative electrophysiological results after removal of the clips over the sympathetic nerve is still a question mark.
In this case report we are presenting a rare case of primary pulmonary plasmacytoma in a dog in the context of clinical and pathological findings. A six-years-old, female Rottweiler was brought to the clinic with respiratory complaints. The patient was dyspneic and tachypneic, and there were friction sounds on auscultation of the lungs. Laryngeal and tracheal palpation induced severe cough. Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs of the thorax showed increased opacity in the lungs and loss of cardiac silhouette. Based on clinical and radiological findings, diagnosis of a lung mass was made and surgery recommended. Under general anesthesia, bilobectomy of the right lung lobes by medial sternotomy was performed. Upon cytological and histopathological findings, plasmacytoma was diagnosed.
Background: Spinal surgical interventions are generally used in the treatment of various spinal pathologies such as vertebral fracture, luxation-subluxation, congenital vertebral deformities, discal hernia, infection and tumor. Minimally invasive spinal surgery contributes to rapid recovery by reducing iatrogenic muscle damage and postoperative pain. In minimally invasive spinal surgery, a new hybrid imaging technique, the exoscope, has been developed in the last decade The purpose of this study was to report efficacy of the exoscopic microdecompressive spinal surgery (MDSS) and its early postoperative electromyography (EMG) results in dogs.Materials, Methods & Results:The material of this study consisted of the owned 10 dogs with spinal cord injury resulted from the different etiologies. On the basis of examinations, medical support (fluid therapy, corticosteroid, etc.) was applied to the required dogs. Exoscopic MDSS was performed under general anesthesia in dogs. The neurologic, radiologic and EMG examination were completed at pre- and postoperative periods. EMG results at postoperative 1st week showed increased conduction velocity and amplitudes in 3 cases. There was no significant change in a case. And, there was a slight slowdown in conduction velocity and significant decrease in amplitudes in a case. At postoperative 4th week, ther was increased conduction velocity and amplitudes in 8 cases and needle EMG showed that spontan muscle activity was normal in 5 cases, mild in 2 cases, moderate a case and severe in a case. But spontan muscle activity was unfollowed in a case. Postoperative outcomes were poor in 3 cases, fair in 3 cases, good in 3 cases and unfollowed in a case. Discussion: Spinal cord injuries encountered in veterinary medicine have significant morbidity and mortality. In spinal patients, in addition to neurological examination, lesion localization can be determined using imaging techniques such as radiology, computed tomography, and MRI. EMG and somatosensory evoked potentials examinations are used to evaluate quantitative functional recovery, especially in spinal cord injuries. EMG also provides an opportunity to evaluate muscle activation patterns during recovery. Exoscopic spinal surgery is the newest hybrid imaging technique. Exoscopic MDSS facilitated manipulation by providing adequate illumination and vision at the exploration site. Exoscopic MDSS has the advantages of microscopic surgery and is a new technique that can be applied in dogs with spinal pathology.
In this study, histologic and electromyographic (EMG) evaluation of neuroregenerative effect of stromal vascular fraction (SVF) following periferal nerve anastomosis was aimed. Totally, 31 Wistar Albino, male rats (weighing about 300 g) were studied, and these rats were grouped according to surgical techniques performed on the right sciatic nerve: group I (GRI) micro suture (n=7), group II (GRII) micro suture + SVF (n=7), group III (GRIII) fibrin glue (n=7) and group IV (GRIV) fibrin glue + SVF (n=7). Fat tissue was taken from 3 rats to prepare SVF, and SVF was produced by non-enzymatic method. The left sciatic nerve of all rats was evaluated for EMG as control. Under general anesthesia, after transversal incision of the sciatic nerve, microsurgical epineural repair technique was performed with 10/0 nonabsorbable suture. EMG examinations were performed in terms of conduction rate, amplitude, distal latency and spontaneous muscle activity at 0th day and postoperative (PO) 1st and 8 th weeks. EMG results between and within the groups were statistically evaluated by one-way analysis of variance. Rats in all groups were sacrificed by decapitation at PO 8 th week and histological examinations of the sciatic nerves were performed following preparation of the neural tissues. EMG examination results showed the highest nerve conduction in GRI, the highest amplitude in GRIII, normal latency in GRII and longer distal latency in GRIV at PO 8 th week. Amplitude and conduction velocity increased gradually in all groups. In needle EMG, the best muscle membrane stabilization was achieved in GRII and GRIV at PO 8 th week. Statistically, the values of amplitude, distal latency, conduction velocity, and spontaneous muscle activity were found to be at normal levels at PO 8 th week in all groups (P>0.05). In the histological results, although fibroconnective tissue reactions in the anastomosis area had similar scores in GRII and GRIV, maximum fibroconnective tissue reaction and the best axonal regeneration was seen in GRI and GRIII, respectively. In addition, GRI and GRII had the most inflammatory cells accumulation in the suture region, and less inflammatory cells were seen in the anastomosis area of GRIII and GRIV. As a conclusion, fibrin glue presents good electrophysiological and histological results; however, it is clear that local SVF usage on the nerve anastomosis area can be a good choice to decrease fibroconnective tissue reaction and inflammation.
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