BackgroundDensity gradient is the preferred technique for sperm processing for ART. However, no study has examined sperm quality using different processing media simultaneously and under identical conditions. Therefore, we evaluated semen quality following sperm preparation by three commonly used commercially available density gradient media in a well-designed controlled trial.MethodsWe obtained semen samples from 20 healthy volunteers. Percent motility, total motile sperm (TMS), % recovery and DNA damage were assessed before and after separation in three different sperm density gradient media-PureCeption, ISolate and SpermGrad-125.ResultsPercent motility was higher in the ISolate (81.4% ± 6.6%) and SpermGrad-125 samples (85.7% ± 8.0%) (P < 0.0001) than in the PureCeption samples (62.5% ± 13.2%) (P = 0.07). TMS was higher in the PureCeption(TM) and ISolate samples (14.2% ± 15.9% and 15.8% ± 18.2%) than in those prepared with SpermGrad-125 (10.6% ± 19.7%) (P < 0.0001). Percent recovery was significantly higher in the PureCeption(TM) and ISolate samples (45.3% and 48.9%) than in the SpermGrad-125(TM) samples (30.8%) (P < 0.01). DNA fragmentation was comparable across the three gradients (PureCeption = 8.8% ± 4.7%; ISolate = 7.2 ± 5.2% and SpermGrad-125 = 11.2% ± 7.4%).ConclusionsThree different density gradient processing media PureCeption, ISolate, and SpermGrad-125 were examined for their effects on sperm quality. Sperm processed by ISolate and Sperm Grad 125 had better motility and TMS after processing. The extent of DNA damage was comparable in all three gradients.
The objective is to study the significance of altered interleukin levels in endometriosis-related infertility or pelvic pain. The present systematic review and meta-analysis includes a discussion on the roles of interleukin in the physiopathology of endometriosis-associated infertility and/or pelvic pain. We included all studies in which interleukins in peritoneal fluid, follicular fluid or serum from patients were measured and that correlated the findings with either peritoneal or deep endometriosis-associated infertility or pelvic pain. For the meta-analysis, we selected studies on the following cytokines: interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Inflammatory processes clearly participate in the etiology of endometriosis. Cytokines are mediators of inflammation, and increase in their concentration in plasma or other body fluids signals the presence and extent of tissue lesions. A number of studies have reported on the association between higher cytokine levels and progression or maintenance of endometriosis and coexisting infertility or pelvic pain. The results of the analyses support that an association exists between elevated serum IL-6 and/or IL-8 concentrations and the occurrence of endometriosis-associated infertility. Such association was not found for endometriosis-associated pain. In spite of accumulated evidence on the association of pro-inflammatory cytokines and endometriosis, it still is not clear if and how these mediators participate in the physiopathology of endometriosis-associated infertility or pelvic pain, in part due to poor quality of the evidence established in the vast majority of interleukins and challenges in endometriosis research reproducibility. In summary, the results of the analyses support that an association exists between elevated serum IL-6 and/or IL-8 concentrations and the occurrence of endometriosis-associated infertility.
Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory hormone-dependent condition associated with pelvic pain and infertility, characterized by the growth of ectopic endometrium outside the uterus. Given its still unknown etiology, treatments usually aim at diminishing pain and/or achieving pregnancy. Despite some progress in defining mode-of-action for drug development, the lack of reliable animal models indicates that novel approaches are required. The difficulties inherent to modeling endometriosis are related to its multifactorial nature, a condition that hinders the recreation of its pathology and the identification of clinically relevant metrics to assess drug efficacy. In this review, we report and comment endometriosis models and how they have led to new therapies. We envision a roadmap for endometriosis research, integrating Artificial Intelligence, three-dimensional cultures and organ-on-chip models as ways to achieve better understanding of physiopathological features and better tailored effective treatments.
The current study compares the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in the follicular fluid (FF) of infertile patients with and without endometriosis submitted to ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization and the levels of MMP-2 in the serum of the same patients. We also evaluated whether the severity of endometriosis can influence serum and/or FF concentration of these metalloproteinases. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 patients: stage I/II endometriosis (n = 10), stage III/IV endometriosis (n = 10), and control (infertility due to tubal and/or male factor; n = 10). Blood samples for the analysis of MMP-2 levels were obtained during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The FF samples for the analysis of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were obtained on the day of oocyte retrieval. The concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined by zymography. No intragroup or intergroup difference was observed in MMP-2 or MMP-9 levels in FF. Significantly higher MMP-2 levels were detected in the serum of infertile women with stage III/IV endometriosis compared to women with stage I/II endometriosis. In conclusion, no differences were observed in the follicular levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 between infertile patients with and without endometriosis. However, the levels of MMP-2 were significantly higher in the serum of infertile women with advanced stages of endometriosis. Taken together, the present results demonstrate that advanced pelvic endometriosis severity is related to higher serum MMP-2 levels but does not influence follicular MMP-2 or MMP-9 levels in periovulatory follicles obtained from stimulated cycles.
We observed reduced detection of lamin B1 in the ectopic endometrium raising the possibility that the presence of senescent cells might be contributing to the maintenance and progression of endometriosis by apoptosis resistance and peritoneal stress inherent of the disease.
Endometriosis causes immunological and cellular alterations. Endometriosis lesions have lower levels of lamin b1 than the endometrium. Moreover, high levels of pro-inflammatory markers are observed in the peritoneal fluid, follicular fluid, and serum in endometriosis lesions. Thus, we hypothesized that the accumulation of senescent cells in endometriosis tissues would facilitate endometriosis maintenance in an inflammatory microenvironment. To study senescent cell markers and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in endometriosis lesions, we conducted a cross-sectional study with 27 patients undergoing video laparoscopy for endometriosis resection and 19 patients without endometriosis. Endometriosis lesions were collected from patients with endometriosis, while eutopic endometrium was collected from patients both with and without endometriosis. Tissues were evaluated for senescence markers (p16Ink4a, lamin b1, and IL-1β) and interleukin concentrations. The expression of p16Ink4a increased in lesions compared to that in eutopic endometrium from endometriosis patients in the secretory phase. In the proliferative phase, lesions exhibited lower lamin b1 expression but higher IL-4 expression than the eutopic endometrium. Further, IL-1β levels were higher in the lesions than in the eutopic endometrium in both the secretory and proliferative phases. We believe that our findings may provide targets for better therapeutic interventions to alleviate the symptoms of endometriosis.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.