Antioxidant activity of carotenoids is suggested to be one of the factors for their disease preventing effects. Marine carotenoids fucoxanthin and its two metabolites, fucoxanthinol and halocynthiaxanthin, have been shown to exhibit several biological effects. The antioxidant activities of these three carotenoids were assessed in vitro with respect to radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching abilities. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol was higher than that of halocynthiaxanthin, with the effective concentration for 50% scavenging (EC 50) being 164.60, 153.78, and 826.39 microM, respectively. 2,2'-Azinobis-3-ethylbenzo thizoline-6-sulphonate radical scavenging activity of fucoxanthinol (EC 50, 2.49 microM) was stronger than that of fucoxanthin (EC 50, 8.94 microM). Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as measured by the chemiluminescence technique showed that the scavenging activity of fucoxanthin was 7.9 times higher than that by fucoxanthinol, 16.3 times higher than that by halocynthiaxanthin, and 13.5 times higher than that by alpha-tocopherol. A similar trend was observed when the hydroxyl radical scavenging was assessed by the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. ESR analysis of the superoxide radical scavenging activity also showed the superiority of fucoxanthin over the other two carotenoids tested. Singlet oxygen quenching ability of the three carotenoids was lower than that of beta-carotene, with quenching rate constants ( k Q, x10 (10) M (-1) s (-1)) being 1.19, 1.81, 0.80, and 12.78 for fucoxanthin, fucoxanthinol, halocynthiaxanthin, and beta-carotene, respectively. The higher radical scavenging activity of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol compared with halocynthiaxanthin is assumed to be due to presence of the allenic bond.
Fucoxanthin is a marine carotenoid found in edible brown seaweeds. We previously reported that dietary fucoxanthin attenuates the weight gain of white adipose tissue (WAT) of diabetic/obese KK- A(y) mice. In this study, to evaluate the antiobesity and antidiabetic effects of fucoxanthin and fish oil, we investigated the effect on the WAT weight, blood glucose, and insulin levels of KK- A(y) mice. Furthermore, the expression level of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and adipokine mRNA in WAT were measured. After 4 weeks of feeding, 0.2% fucoxanthin in the diet markedly attenuated the gain of WAT weight in KK- A(y) mice with increasing UCP1 expression compared with the control mice. The WAT weight of the mice fed 0.1% fucoxanthin and 6.9% fish oil was also significantly lower than that of the mice fed fucoxanthin alone. In addition, 0.2% fucoxanthin markedly decreased the blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations in KK- A(y) mice. The mice fed with the combination diet of 0.1% fucoxanthin and fish oil also showed improvements similar to that of 0.2% fucoxanthin. Leptin and tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) mRNA expression in WAT were significantly down-regulated by 0.2% fucoxanthin. These results suggest that dietary fucoxanthin decreases the blood glucose and plasma insulin concentration of KK- A(y) along with down-regulating TNFalpha mRNA. In addition, the combination of fucoxanthin and fish oil is more effective for attenuating the weight gain of WAT than feeding with fucoxanthin alone.
Abstract. Fucoxanthin, a characteristic carotenoid of brown algae, has been reported to exert an anti-diabetic effect in an obese murine model. Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida), an edible seaweed, is rich in fucoxanthin. This study examined the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of fucoxanthin-rich wakame lipids (Wls) on high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity in mice. Mice were fed a high fat control (HF c ) or normal fat control (nF c ) diet for 10 weeks. The HF diet-fed group was administered a HF diet containing Wls for a further 5 weeks. Parameters related to diabetes and obesity conditions were evaluated and compared. The HF-Wl diet, which was rich in fucoxanthin, significantly suppressed body weight and white adipose tissue (WaT) weight gain induced by the HF diet. dietary administration of the HF diet resulted in hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia in the mouse model. These perturbations were completely normalized in the HF-Wl diet-fed group. increased expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (McP-1) mrna expression was observed in HF c mice, but was normalized in the HF-Wl groups. Moreover, the HF-Wl diet promoted mrna expression of β3-adrenergic receptor (adrb3) in WaT and glucose transporter 4 (gluT4) mrna in skeletal muscle tissues. These results suggest that dietary Wls may ameliorate alterations in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance induced by a HF diet. There is therefore a biochemical and nutritional basis for the application of fucoxanthin-rich Wls as a functional food to prevent obesity and diabetes-related disorders.
IntroductionThe modern-day tendency to consume nutritionally rich diets coupled with irrational dietary habits create physiological disorders. These lead to the accumulation of visceral fat, and finally result in obesity and related disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (1,2). long-term consumption of a high fat (HF) diet accelerates the development of obesity (3); hence, strategies to prevent obesity are of great importance. Fucoxanthin is a characteristic carotenoid of brown algae including edible species such as Undaria pinnatifida and Hijikia fusiformis. We recently reported the suppression of the development of white adipose tissue (WaT) by fucoxanthin in obese/diabetic kk-A y mice (4,5). expression of uncoupling protein 1 (ucP1), which plays an important role in energy expenditure, was induced by dietary fucoxanthin in WaT but not in brown adipose tissue; this ucP1 expression was responsible for the antiobesity effect of fucoxanthin. Furthermore, dietary fucoxanthin regulated adipocytokine secretion, thus preventing hyperglycemia in a type 2 diabetes kk-A y mouse model (5). The adipocyte as an endocrine cell has recently been recognized for its role in the secretion of biologically active mediators, termed adipokines/chemokines, including leptin, adiponectin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TnF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (McP-1) (6-8). Some adipokines are reported to alter insulin...
Abstract. Fucoxanthin is a major carotenoid found in edible seaweed such as Undaria pinnatifida and Hijikia fusiformis. We investigated the suppressive effects of fucoxanthin and its metabolite, fucoxanthinol, on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to adipocytes. Fucoxanthin inhibited intercellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, fucoxanthin was converted to fucoxanthinol in 3T3-L1 cells. Fucoxanthinol also exhibited suppressive effects on lipid accumulation and decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, an indicator of adipocyte differentiation. The suppressive effect of fucoxanthinol was stronger than that of fucoxanthin. In addition, in 3T3-L1 cells treated with fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Á (PPARÁ), which regulates adipogenic gene expression, was down-regulated in a dosedependent manner. These results suggest that fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol inhibit the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells through down-regulation of PPARÁ. Fucoxanthinol had stronger suppressive effects than fucoxanthin on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.
This study examined the effect of dietary fucoxanthin or fucoxanthinol on the amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the liver of KKAy mice, a model for obese/type II diabetes. In the first experiment, mice were fed diets containing crude fucoxanthin or glyceroglycolipid for 4 weeks. Results showed a significant increase in the level of DHA in mice fed 0.53% crude fucoxanthin, from 2.3% in control mice to 5.1% of fatty acid composition of total liver lipids. On the other hand, in mice fed crude glyceroglycolipid, the level of DHA as a proportion of total liver fatty acids remained unchanged. To clarify the enhancement of hepatic DHA, in the second experiment, KKAy mice were fed a diet containing purified fucoxanthin or its deacetylated derivative, fucoxanthinol. Results from a quantitative analysis using an internal standard showed that in mice fed 0.2% fucoxanthin, the amount of hepatic DHA was 2-fold higher than in control mice, whereas DHA levels in the small intestine remained unchanged. Furthermore, 0.2% fucoxanthinol led to 1.8- and 1.2-fold increases in the amount of hepatic DHA and arachidonic acid compared to control mice, respectively. These results indicate for the first time that dietary fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol enhance the amount of DHA in the liver of KKAy mice.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.