IntroductionAchieving glycemic targets and optimizing quality of life (QoL) are important goals of type 1 diabetes care. Hypoglycemia is a common barrier to achieving targets and can be associated with significant distress. However, the impact of hypoglycemia on QoL is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore how adults with type 1 diabetes are impacted by hypoglycemia in areas of life that are important to their overall QoL.Research design and methodsParticipants responded to a web-based qualitative survey involving a novel ‘Wheel of Life’ activity. Responses were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis.ResultsThe final sample included 219 adults with type 1 diabetes from Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. They had a mean±SD age of 39±13 years and diabetes duration of 20±14 years. Participants identified eight areas of life important to their overall QoL, including relationships and social life, work and studies, leisure and physical activity, everyday life, sleep, sex life, physical health, and mental health. Participants reported emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and social impacts of hypoglycemia within domains. Across domains, participants described interruptions, limited participation in activities, exhaustion, fear of hypoglycemia, compensatory strategies to prevent hypoglycemia, and reduced spontaneity.ConclusionsThe findings emphasize the profound impact of hypoglycemia on QoL and diabetes self-care behaviors. Diabetes services should be aware of and address the burden of hypoglycemia to provide person-centered care. Clinicians could ask individuals how hypoglycemia affects important areas of their lives to better understand the personal impact and develop tailored management plans.
To conduct a systematic review to examine associations between hypoglycemia and quality of life (QoL) in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
Four databases (Medline, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO) were searched systematically in November 2019 and searches were updated in September 2021. Studies were eligible if they included children and/or adolescents with type 1 diabetes, reported on the association between hypoglycemia and QoL (or related outcomes), had a quantitative design, and were published in a peer-reviewed journal after 2000. A protocol was registered the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; CRD42020154023). Studies were evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute’s critical appraisal tool. A narrative synthesis was conducted by outcome and hypoglycemia severity.
In total, 27 studies met inclusion criteria. No hypoglycemia-specific measures of QoL were identified. Evidence for an association between SH and (domains) of generic and diabetes-specific QoL was too limited to draw conclusions, due to heterogenous definitions and operationalizations of hypoglycemia and outcomes across studies. SH was associated with greater worry about hypoglycemia, but was not clearly associated with diabetes distress, depression, anxiety, disordered eating or posttraumatic stress disorder. Although limited, some evidence suggests that more recent, more frequent, or more severe episodes of hypoglycemia may be associated with adverse outcomes and that the context in which hypoglycemia takes places might be important in relation to its impact.
There is insufficient evidence regarding the impact of hypoglycemia on QoL in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes at this stage. There is a need for further research to examine this relationship, ideally using hypoglycemia-specific QoL measures.
IntroductionThe aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the 12-Item Hypoglycemia Impact Profile (HIP12), a brief measure of the impact of hypoglycemia on quality of life (QoL) among adults with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D).Research design and methodsAdults with T1D (n=1071) or T2D (n=194) participating in the multicountry, online study, ‘Your SAY: Hypoglycemia’, completed the HIP12. Psychometric analyses were undertaken to determine acceptability, structural validity, internal consistency, convergent/divergent validity, and known-groups validity.ResultsMost (98%) participants completed all items on the HIP12. The expected one-factor solution was supported for T1D, T2D, native English speaker, and non-native English speaker groups. Internal consistency was high across all groups (ω=0.91–0.93). Convergent and divergent validity were satisfactory. Known-groups validity was demonstrated for both diabetes types, by frequency of severe hypoglycemia (0 vs ≥1 episode in the past 12 months) and self-treated episodes (<2 vs 2–4 vs ≥5 per week). The measure also discriminated by awareness of hypoglycemia in those with T1D.ConclusionsThe HIP12 is an acceptable, internally consistent, and valid tool for assessing the impact of hypoglycemia on QoL among adults with T1D. The findings in the relatively small sample with T2D are encouraging and warrant replication in a larger sample.
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If you’re like me, you didn’t pursue your studies out of a love for public speaking, yet you may find that presenting your work is a vital part of doing science. For a researcher’s findings to have impact, they must be shared with and communicated to others, preferably in a way that is easy to understand, interesting, and memorable. When it comes to giving presentations, we all know the basics of what not to do: Don’t cram too much information into your slides, don’t ignore your audience, don’t read off your slides. On the other hand, it's not always clear what makes a good presentation good.
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