Overweight and obesity induce serious health problems that exert negative effects on dog’s welfare. Body condition score (BCS) is a common method to evaluate the body fat mass in animals. By palpating and observing fats under the skin it is possible to predict animal’s body fat accumulation condition. BCS is also a useful tool to estimate body fat composition in dogs. However, BCS can be subjective when it was performed by non-professionals like pet’s owners. To develop a method to avoid the misevaluation of BCS twenty-four Beagles were enrolled and performed BCS evaluation. In addition, the length of chest and abdominal girths were measured. In correlation analysis, the sizes of chest and abdominal girth were significantly correlated with BCS. Especially, the difference and ratio of the chest and abdominal length were highly correlated with the BCS. With that, we suggested that this simple measurement of chest and abdominal girths by a measuring tape would be an effective method to estimate BCS scores in dogs that helps non-professionals to manage their own dog’s nutritional condition by monitoring body fat accumulation condition.
White Pekin duck is an important meat resource in the livestock industries. However, the temperature increase due to global warming has become a serious environmental factor in duck production, because of hyperthermia. Therefore, identifying the gene regulations and understanding the molecular mechanism for adaptation to the warmer environment will provide insightful information on the acclimation system of ducks. This study examined transcriptomic responses to heat stress treatments (3 and 6 h at 35 °C) and control (C, 25 °C) using RNA-sequencing analysis of genes from the breast muscle tissue. Based on three distinct differentially expressed gene (DEG) sets (3H/C, 6H/C, and 6H/3H), the expression patterns of significant DEGs (absolute log2 > 1.0 and false discovery rate < 0.05) were clustered into three responsive gene groups divided into upregulated and downregulated genes. Next, we analyzed the clusters that showed relatively higher expression levels in 3H/C and lower levels in 6H/C with much lower or opposite levels in 6H/3H; we referred to these clusters as the adaptable responsive gene group. These genes were significantly enriched in the ErbB signaling pathway, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and type II diabetes mellitus in the KEGG pathways (P < 0.01). From the functional enrichment analysis and significantly regulated genes observed in the enriched pathways, we think that the adaptable responsive genes are responsible for the acclimation mechanism of ducks and suggest that the regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase genes including PIK3R6, PIK3R5, and PIK3C2B has an important relationship with the mechanisms of adaptation to heat stress in ducks.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of black soldier fly larvae oil (BSFLO) from the black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) as a partial or total replacement of soybean oil (SBO) on growth performance, fatty acid (FA) profile, and meat quality of broiler chickens from 1 to 5 wk of age. A total of 210 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) at one-day of age were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments (10 replicates and 7 birds/group): a basal control diet (CON), the basal diet in which the SBO was replaced by 50% (50 BSFLO) or 100% (100 BSFLO) of BSFLO. The growth performance, physical measurements and chemical traits of leg meat, and sensory analysis of breast meat were not influenced by diets. However, the relative weight (g/kg) of gizzard of CON was significantly higher (14.85, 12.52, and 13.02 for CON, 50 BSFLO, and 100 BSFLO; p < 0.05) than that of other treatments. As expected, the FA profile of breast meat was affected by BSFLO inclusion. The proportion (%) of saturated fatty acid (SFA) was increased (27.16, 27.58, and 28.72 for CON, 50 BSFLO, and 100 BSFLO; p < 0.05) by BSFLO inclusion and the percentage (%) of MUFA was also increased (43.36, 44.58, and 48.55 for CON, 50 BSFLO, and 100 BSFLO; p < 0.01). On the contrary, the proportion (%) of PUFA was decreased (29.49, 27.84, and 22.74 for CON, 50 BSFLO, and 100 BSFLO; p < 0.01). In conclusion, the present study suggests that the replacement of BSFLO did not show an adverse effect on growth performance and it could be an ingredient as a dietary fat source for a broiler diet.
A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased when chicks were reared in the GHP broiler house compared with that of chicks reared in the conventional broiler house (1.73 vs. 1.62 kg/bird). The heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the conventional broiler house compared with those in the GHP house. Fuel consumption was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and electricity consumption significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the GHP house compared with the consumption in the conventional house during the experiment. The total energy cost of heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of the conventional house. It is concluded that a GHP system could increase the production performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the conventional heating system for broiler chickens.
The present experiment was carried out to compare performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality among three major meat-type duck strains in Korea. Two commercial duck (CD) strains, produced from parent stocks (PS) (Cherry Valley and Grimaud), and F1 strains, self-produced by farmers, were used in an 8-week feeding experiment. Both feed conversion ratio and production index were significantly higher in Cherry Valley strain compared with the other two at the ends of 6 and 8 weeks (p<0.05). However, no differences were found in carcass characteristics and meat quality, with the exception of abdominal fat weight where Grimaud were higher than the others. Overall, the results of the current study show that Cherry Valley CD strain had higher performance among three strains tested.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary quercetin on growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and blood antioxidant activity in broiler chickens. Three hundred twenty one-day old Ross broilers were divided 8 treatments (C(-), basal diet; C(+), basal diet with antibiotics; vitamin E 20 IU; vitamin E 200 IU; quercetin 20 ppm; quercetin 200 ppm; methoxylated quercetin 20 ppm; methoxylated quercetin 200 ppm) with 4 replicates and 10 birds per replicate. Birds were reared for 35 days and their feed intake and weight gain were measured weekly. At 35d, eight birds of average weight from each replicate were selected for blood collection and analysis. Weight gain of birds in the groups fed quercetin was higher when compare to NC but there was no significant difference. In the serum, creatinine, BUN and AST in quercetin groups significantly decreased compared to those of control (NC and PC) (P<0.05). The contents of IgA and IgM were significantly lower in quercetin groups than those of NC (P<0.05). SOD like activity and MDA content tended to decrease in quercetin groups, however, there was no significant difference among treatments. In conclusion, supplemental quercetin to poultry diet could be positive aspect on performance and blood metabolites. Optimum adding levels was more than 20 ppm.
Limited information is available regarding the use of microwave-dried Hermetia illucens larvae meal (HILM) as a dietary protein source for broiler diets. Therefore, we investigated the effects of microwave-dried HILM on carcass traits, meat quality, fatty acid (FA) profiles of abdominal fat and meat, and heavy metal residues of the meat in broilers. A total of 126 male broilers were randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups (6 replicates and 7 birds/pen): a control diet and two experimental diets in which soybean meal was replaced with 25 or 50% HILM. The broilers were slaughtered at 35 days; the carcasses were weighed, and breast and leg meats were excised from 12 birds per treatment (2 birds/pen) for meat analysis. The breast meat quality and proximate composition showed satisfactory results. For the higher HILM diet, the content of saturated FA in the abdominal fat was increased and that of polyunsaturated FA was decreased (p < 0.001); the FA profile of leg meat did not significantly differ between groups. The concentrations of undesirable heavy metals in the HILM and leg meat were below permissible levels. However, the carcass weight was decreased (p < 0.001) in the 50% HILM group. Microwave-dried HILM is a potential ingredient for broiler diets, with up to 25% substitution showing no detrimental effects on carcass traits, meat quality, FA profiles, and heavy metal residues in the meat.
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