Organizational trust and organizational commitment are considered as the most important entraining factors for organizational success. The most important factor in the formation of organizational commitment is trust that employees have in their organizations. In this study, the relationship between organizational trust and organizational commitment was searched. For this purpose, 176 sports employees of Provincial Directorate of Youth and Sports in Turkey were applied "organizational trust scale" developed by Omarov  as well as "organizational commitment scale" developed by Meyer and Allen . The data obtained as a result of the research were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 software program and the results were presented. As a result, it is remarkable that emotional commitment of male employees was more than that of female employees. Trust of participants in director positively affected emotional and normative commitment. It was also determined that trust of participants in their colleagues and organizations positively affected normative (commitment to worth and targets of the organization) commitment. It was concluded that organizational trust positively affected organizational commitment in sports employees.
In this study was to examine the body composition, flexibility, balance and concentration characteristics of dance exercise. Total of 268 university students whose average age was 20.59 ±1.59 years were included. Height measurements, body weight measurements, flexibility measurements, balance test, concentration test of the students who had dance courses (the experimental group) and those who did not have dance courses (the control group) were provided twice, at the beginning of and at the end of the study as pre-test and post-test. Frequency analyses, descriptive statistics, and paired t-test were used. There were significant differences between pre-test and post-test scores of body weight, BMI, flexibility, balance, concentration among the students doing dance exercises (the experimental group). There were no significant differences between pre-test and post-test scores of body weight, BMI, concentration among the students not doing dance exercises (the control group) but there were significant differences in flexibility and balance scores.
Extreme sports are sport branches which include actions, adventures, risks and difficulties more rather than other sports. Special materials are used in sport branches such as surfing, kite surfing, sailing, snowboarding, paragliding, diving, mountaineering, motor sports and adrenaline release is more rather than in other sport branches. On the contrary, the situation for being eager to seek excitement and take risks with a view to having new experiences has been observed. It has been considered whether sensation seeking requirement and risk-taking behavior had effects upon each other. The aim of the study was to analyze sensation seeking and risk-taking behavior in extreme athletes. Total 101 extreme athletes including 31 females, 70 males with an age average of 22.03 ± 6.77 participated in the research. In order to determine athletes' sensation seeking levels, "Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking" developed by Arnett (1994) and in order to determine their risk-taking behavior, "Risk Involvement and Perception Scale" developed by Siegel et al. (1994) were used. In evaluation of research data, frequency analysis, independent t test, in determination of relation between risk-taking and sensation seeking, correlation test were utilized.In conclusion, significant differences were found in risk-taking behavior, sensation seeking requirement and gender variable among the extreme athletes. In the male athletes sensation seeking requirement and risk-taking behavior had higher averages than the female athletes. Among the extreme athletes, significant relations were determined between risk-taking behavior and sensation seeking requirement. When risk-taking behavior values were high, sensation seeking requirement values were regarded to be high.
The purpose of this study was to investigate senses of sexism and religiosity in terms of sports variable. Totally 192 university students including 121 males and 71 females with an average age of 21.72 ± 1.90 voluntarily participated in the research. "Ambivalent Sexism Inventory" was used in order to measure the attitudes of students participated in the research towards sexism whereas "Religiosity Scale" was used to determine their sense of religiosity. For the assessment of the results, frequency, t-test and correlation statistical processes were carried out. As a result; a significant difference was found between individuals doing and not doing exercises in terms of their sexism and religiosity levels. A significant difference was also found between hostile sexism, benevolent sexism and benevolent patriarchy attitudes of individuals doing and not doing exercises. It was determined that average of hostile sexism, benevolent sexism and benevolent patriarchy attitudes of individuals doing exercises was higher than that of individuals not doing exercises. A significant difference was determined between hostile sexism, benevolent sexism and heterosexual intimacy properties in terms of gender variable. It was observed that hostile sexism property of females was lower than that of male participants. On the other hand, benevolent sexism property of females was higher than that of male participants. A significant difference was not found between doing exercises variable, gender variable as well as religiosity variable, however, a positive relationship was found between religiosity and benevolent sexism, heterosexual intimacy, benevolent, supplementary attitude towards genders. As the level of religiosity increases, the average of benevolent sexism, heterosexual intimacy, benevolent patriarchy, supplementary attitude towards genders also increases.
Background: Pre-season training in soccer can induce changes in biological markers in the circulation. However, relationships between chosen hematological and biochemical blood parameters and training load have not been measured. Objective: Analyze the blood measures changes and their relationships with training loads changes after pre-season training. Methodology: Twenty-five professional soccer players were assessed by training load measures (derived from rate of perceived exertion- known as RPE) during the pre-season period. Additionally, blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical analyses. Results: For hematological parameters, significant increases were found for platelets (PLT) (dif: 6.42; p = 0.006; d = −0.36), while significant decreases were found for absolute neutrophils count (ANC) (dif: −3.98; p = 0.006; d = 0.11), and absolute monocytes count (AMC) (dif: −16.98; p = 0.001; d = 0.78) after the pre-season period. For biochemical parameters, there were significant increases in creatinine (dif: 5.15; p = 0.001; d = −0.46), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (dif: 12.55; p = 0.001; d = −0.84), C-reactive protein (CRP) (dif: 15.15; p = 0.001; d = −0.67), cortisol (dif: 2.85; p = 0.001; d = −0.28), and testosterone (dif: 5.38; p = 0.001; d = −0.52), whereas there were significant decreases in calcium (dif: −1.31; p = 0.007; d =0.49) and calcium corrected (dif: −2.18; p = 0.015; d = 0.82) after the pre-season period. Moreover, the Hooper Index (dif: 13.22; p = 0.01; d = 0.78), and all derived RPE measures increased after pre-season period. Moderate-to-very large positive and negative correlations (r range: 0.50–0.73) were found between the training load and hematological measures percentage of changes. Moderate-to-large positive and negative correlations (r range: 0.50–0.60) were found between training load and biochemical measures percentage of changes. Conclusions: The results indicated heavy physical loads during the pre-season, leading to a decrease in immune functions. Given the significant relationships between blood and training load measures, monitoring hematological and biochemical measures allow coaches to minimize injury risk, overreaching, and overtraining.
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