This study aimed to assess the influence of lobectomy and pneumonectomy on cardiac rhythm and on the dimensions and function of the right-side of the heart. Twelve dogs undergoing lobectomy and eight dogs undergoing pneumonectomy were evaluated preoperatively and one month postoperatively with electrocardiography and Doppler echocardiography at rest. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was estimated by the tricuspid regurgitation jet (TRJ) via the pulse wave Doppler velocity method. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria (SIRS) were also evaluated based on the clinical and hematological findings in response to lobectomy and pneumonectomy. Following lobectomy and pneumonectomy, we predominantly detected atrial fibrillation and varying degrees of atrioventricular block (AVB). Dogs that died within seven days of the lobectomy (n = 2) or pneumonectomy (n = 1) had complete AVB. Preoperative right atrial, right ventricular, and pulmonary artery dimensions increased gradually during the 30 days (p<0.05) following pneumonectomy, but did not undergo significant changes during that same period after lobectomy. Mean PASP was 56.0 ± 4.5 mmHg in dogs having significant TRJ after pneumonectomy. Pneumonectomy, but not lobectomy, could lead to increases (p<0.01) in the SIRS score within the first day post-surgery. In brief, it is important to conduct pre- and postoperative cardiac evaluation of dogs undergoing lung resections because cardiac problems are a common postoperative complication after such surgeries. In particular, complete AVB should be considered a life-threatening complication after pneumonectomy and lobectomy. In addition, pneumonectomy appears to increase the likelihood of pulmonary hypertension development in dogs.
Modified colostomy was considered advantageous because of intermittent fecal discharge from the stoma compared with continuous fecal release in conventional colostomy. The modified technique seemingly has a beneficial effect on growth of the calf.
This study aimed to compare thickness of the capsule, corium, and soft tissues measured ultrasonographically and macroscopically in selected regions of bovine claws. A hundred and twenty claws (n = 120) of 15 healthy Holstein bovines were obtained. After cleaning the claws, ultrasonographic measurement of the capsule, corium, and soft tissues was performed while submerging the claws in a water bath. Macroscopic measurements were taken after cutting of the claws axially. These values were compared statistically. According to the macroscopic measurements, the mean thickness ± standard deviation (SD) of the capsule for dorsal wall and sole was 6.2 ± 0.1 and 9.5 ± 0.4 mm, respectively. The thickness of the corium and soft tissues for dorsal wall and sole was 4.5 ± 0.1 and 5.3 ± 0.1 mm, respectively. Ultrasonographically, the mean thickness ± SD of the capsule for dorsal wall and sole was 4.7 ± 0.1 and 7.8 ± 0.3 mm, respectively. The thickness of the corium and soft tissues for dorsal wall and sole was 4.3 ± 0.1 and 5.9 ± 0.2 mm, respectively. Findings demonstrated that ultrasonography can be reliably to measure of the thickness of the hoof capsule, corium, and soft tissue in bovine claw.
We performed biomechanical comparison of a xenograft bone plate-screw (XBPS) system for achieving cadaveric lumbar transpedicular stabilization (TS) in dogs. Twenty dogs' cadaveric L2-4 lumbar specimens were harvested and their muscles were removed, but the discs and ligaments were left intact. These specimens were separated to four groups: the L2-4 intact group as control (group I, n = 5), the L3 laminectomy and bilateral facetectomy group (LBF) (group II, n = 5), the LBF plus TS with metal plate-screw group (group III, n = 5) and the LBF plus TS with XBPS group (group IV, n = 5). Five kinds of biomechanical tests were applied to the specimens: flexion, extension, left-right bending and rotation. The averages of the 16 stiffness values were calculated and then these were statistically analyzed. The statistical results show that the XBPS system contributes spinal stability and this system can be a good choice for achieving TS.
The comparison of the histologic healing and bronchopleural fistula (BPF) complications encountered with three different BS closure techniques (manual suture, stapler and manual suture plus tissue flab) after pneumonectomy in dogs was investigated for a one-month period. The dogs were separated into two groups: group I (GI) (n = 9) and group II (GII) (n = 9). Right and left pneumonectomies were performed on the animals in GI and GII, respectively. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to BS closure technique: subgroup I (SGI) (n = 3), manual suture; subgroup II (SGII) (n = 3), stapler; and subgroup III (SGIII) (n = 3), manual suture plus tissue flab. The dogs were sacrificed after one month of observation, and the bronchial stumps were removed for histological examination. The complications observed during a one-month period following pneumonectomy in nine dogs (n = 9) were: BPF (n = 5), peri-operative cardiac arrest (n = 1), post-operative respiratory arrest (n = 1), post-operative cardiac failure (n = 1) and cardio-pulmonary failure (n = 1). Histological healing was classified as complete or incomplete healing. Histological healing and BPF complications in the subgroups were analyzed statistically. There was no significant difference in histological healing between SGI and SGIII (p = 1.00; p > 0.05), nor between SGII and SGIII (p = 1.00; p > 0.05). Similarly, no significant difference was observed between the subgroups in terms of BPF (p = 0.945; p > 0.05). The results of the statistical analysis indicated that manual suture, stapler or manual suture plus tissue flab could be alternative methods for BS closure following pneumonectomy in dogs.
Objective and design Retrospective study of the outcomes of Heimlich valve drainage in dogs. Procedure Medical records of the past 3 years were retrospectively reviewed. Heimlich valve drainage was used in 34 dogs (median body weight 30 ± 5 kg): lobectomy (n = 15), pneumonectomy (n = 9), intrathoracic oesophageal surgery (n = 2), diaphragmatic hernia repair (n = 1), traumatic open pneumothorax (n = 2), bilobectomy (n = 2), ligation of the thoracic duct (n = 1), and chylothorax and pneumothorax (n = 1 each). Evacuation of air and/ or fluid from the pleural cavity was performed with the Heimlich valve following thoracostomy tube insertion. During drainage, the dogs were closely monitored for possible respiratory failure. Termination of Heimlich valve drainage was controlled with underwater seal drainage and assessed with thoracic radiography. Results Negative intrathoracic pressure was provided in 29 dogs without any complications. Post pneumonectomy respiratory syncope and post lobectomy massive hemothorax, which did not originate from the Heimlich valve, were the only postoperative complications. Dysfunction of the valve diaphragm, open pneumothorax and intrathoracic localisation of an acute gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome caused by a left-sided diaphragmatic hernia following pneumonectomy were the Heimlich valve drainage complications. Conclusions The Heimlich valve can be used as a continuous drainage device in dogs, but the complications reported here should be considered by veterinary practitioners.
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