CXCL12 is expressed by normal IECs and upregulated and differentially distributed in IBD IECs. CXCR4 is expressed by IECs and LPTs, and CXCR4+ cells are significantly increased in IBD LP. CXCL12 is chemotactic for both PBTs and LPTs. Thus, CXCL12 and CXCR4 have a constitutive and inflammatory role in the intestinal mucosa and their selective therapeutic manipulation may be considered in IBD management.
Gracilis muscle transposition is a viable option for repairing fistulas between the urethra, vagina, and the rectum, especially after failed perineal or transanal repairs. It is associated with low morbidity and a good success rate. Underlying Crohn's disease and previous radiation are associated with poor prognosis.
AIM:To review the experience of a major medical teaching center with diagnostic and therapeutic c o l o n o s c o p i e s a n d t o a s s e s s t h e i n c i d e n c e a n d management of related colonic perforations.
METHODS:All colonoscopies performed between January 1994 and December 2001 were studied. Data on patients, colonoscopic reports and procedure-related complications were collected from the departmental computerized database. The medical records of the patients with post procedural colonic perforation were reviewed.
RESULTS:A total of 12 067 colonoscopies were performed during the 8 years of the study. Seven colonoscopic perforations (4 females, 3 males) were diagnosed (0.058%). Five occurred during diagnostic and two during therapeutic colonoscopy. Six were suspected during or immediately after colonoscopy. All except one had signs of diffuse tenderness and underwent immediate operation with primary repair done in 4 patients. No deaths were reported.
CONCLUSION:Perforation rate during colonoscopy is low. Nevertheless, it is a serious complication and its early recognition and treatment are essential to optimize outcome. In patients with diffuse peritonitis early operative intervention makes primary repair a safe option.
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