In order to improve Boer goat semen quality during cryopreservation process, the influence of sugar supplementation on semen characteristics of sperm were investigated. Three experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of (a) addition of two monosaccharides (fructose and glucose) and two disaccharides sugars (trehalose and sucrose) (b) sugar combination (fructose and trehalose, sucrose and trehalose, glucose and trehalose), and control (glucose without trehalose) (c) different concentrations of trehalose on cryopreservation using Tris based extender. The total motility, forward motility, viability, normal spermatozoa, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity were assessed subjectively. Differences were not detected among monosaccharides, but glucose increased (P<0.05) sperm forward motility in post-thaw goat semen compared to trehalose or sucrose supplementation. Semen quality did not differ (P>0.05) among disaccharide sugar supplementation. Combination of glucose and trehalose significantly improved the characteristics of Boer spermatozoa after cryopreservation (P<0.05). Supplementation of trehalose (198.24mM) into the glucose extender significantly increased total motility, forward motility, live spermatozoa, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity following cryopreservation (P<0.05). In conclusion, glucose had the better ability to support Boer sperm motility and movement patterns. Combination of monosaccharide (glucose) and disaccharide (trehalose) improved semen quality following cryopreservation. Trehalose supplementation at the concentration of 198.24mM to the glucose extender conferred the greater improvement of semen quality for Boer semen cryopreservation.
Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a chronic disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. However, there is a paucity of data about the C. pseudotuberculosis exotoxin, phospholipase D (PLD) response during the course of CLA. Therefore, this study was conducted to observe the clinical signs and the cellular changes after an experimental infection of the C. pseudotuberculosis and phospholipase D challenge. Twenty six crossbred Boer goats aged 12-14 months were divided into 3 groups; the first group n=6 was inoculated with 1ml sterile PBS s.c. as the control. The second group n=10 was inoculated with live C. pseudotuberculosis 1×10 9 cfu s.c. The third group n=10 was i.v. inoculated with PLD 1mL/20 kg, BW. Both the C. pseudotuberculosis and the PLD treated groups showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and body score. Pathologically, the C. pseudotuberculosis and the PLD treated groups showed a significant cellular changes (p<0.05) manifested as edema, congestion, infiltration of inflammatory cells mainly lymphocytes and macrophages, hemorrhage, degeneration and necrosis in the visceral organs including the lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and lymph nodes. C. pseudotuberculosis infected group showed abscessation of the lymph nodes and some of the visceral organs. In contrast, PLD inoculation did not lead to any abscess formation in the lymph nodes neither in the visceral organs. It concluded that the C. pseudotuberculosis caused typical CLA disease with short incubation period of two weeks. The PLD inoculation showed little clinical signs and it did not lead to abscesses formation externally neither internally, however, it caused obvious cellular changes in the visceral organs as well as in the lymph nodes. PLD play a key role in CLA development, yet it is impossible to trigger granulomatous lesion without the C. pseudotuberculosis being present.
The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is on the verge of extinction in Malaysia. At the Sumatran rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Sungai Dusun, the reproductive behaviour of two female and two male rhinoceroses were studied for 8-10 months during attempts to breed them in captivity. Due to the paucity of scientific information on the reproductive biology of the Sumatran rhinoceros, this study was conducted to obtain information on the reproductive behaviour of this species. The male rhino was introduced to a female rhino in the morning for 1-2 h daily in order to observe for behavioural oestrus. Observations were made on the signs of oestrus and mating behaviour. Oestrus was determined by receptivity towards the male and lasted about 24 h. Common signs of oestrus were an increase in frequency of urine spraying, tail raising or swinging, anogenital and other contacts. Although the males exhibited mounting, the inability of the male to achieve intromission was poor. The study demonstrated that the pattern of courtship and copulation of the captive Sumatran rhinos were comparable with those of other rhino species, reported previously by other scientists and flehmen reflex was also exhibited by the male Sumatran rhinos. In a captive breeding programme, it is recommended that only an oestral female is introduced into a male enclosure due to the male solitary behaviour and to avoid serious injuries inflicted onto the females.
The effectiveness of different cryodevices (open-pulled straw (OPS), electron microscopy grid (EMG), and Cryotop was evaluated for vitrification of immature bovine oocytes. Polar body, metaphase II stage (MII), survivability, and subsequent developmental rates were determined. Only oocytes with four or five layers of cumulus cells were used. Oocytes were equilibrated in two vitrification solutions -1: 10% DMSO + 10% ethylene glycol (EG) for 30-45sec and 2: 20% DMSO + 20% EG +0.5M sucrose for 25sec -, mounted on one of the cryodevices and directly plunged into liquid nitrogen for 10 days. Immature vitrified oocytes using Cryotop showed the highest rates of polar body extrusion (PB) and nuclear maturity (MII); 41 and 58% respectively. Vitrified oocytes using OPS and EMG showed 26 and 32%; and 35 and 46% of PB and MII rates, respectively. The highest survivability resulted from Cryotop and EMG groups and no significant difference was found between them. Vitrified oocytes using Cryotop had the highest cleavage and blastocyst rates. All of the mean rates for vitrified immature oocytes were significantly lower than that of control group (P<0.05). The results of this study showed the superiority of Cryotop device for vitrification of immature bovine oocytes.Keywords: bovine, immature oocyte, vitrification, cryodevice RESUMO Avaliou-se a eficácia de diferentes dispositivos de congelamento (envasamento em palhetas (EP), microscopia eletrônica de grade (MEG) e Cryotop) para vitrificação de ovócitos imaturos de bovinos. Para tal, foram determinados o corpo polar, a metáfase II (MII), a viabilidade e as subsequentes taxas de desenvolvimento. Foram utilizados somente ovócitos com quatro ou cinco camadas de células do cumulus. Os ovócitos foram equilibrados em duas soluções de vitrificação -1: DMSO (10%) + etilenoglicol (EG; 10%) por 30 a 45 segundos e 2: DMSO (20%) + EG (20%) + sacarose (0,5M) por 25 segundos -, transferidos para os
The primary objectives of this study were to investigate incidence of abnormal ovarian cyclicity (AOC) and its type in dairy and beef cows with prolonged postpartum period (>90 days) and in heifers that fail to conceive. A total of 53 animals were included in the study: 17 Friesian crosses, 16 Braford crosses, eight Brangus crosses, and 12 local Kedah-Kelantan (KKX) crosses. These animals were initially checked for absence of pregnancy via palpation per rectum. Blood samples for progesterone analysis were obtained twice a week for 2 to 3 months following their spontaneous oestrous cycle, and all animals were rechecked for pregnancy at the end of the study. Progesterone analysis indicated that 33.9% of the total animals were having AOC: 18.9% with cessation of ovarian cyclicity, 9.4% with prolonged luteal phases (PLP), and 5.7% short luteal phases. The highest incidence was observed in Brangus crosses (62.5%), followed by Braford crosses (43.8%), and Friesian crosses (35.3%). In contrast, no AOC was observed in the local KKX breeds, and all of them were found to be pregnant at the end of the study. A significant difference (p < 0.05) in the incidence of AOC and its type was observed between Kedah-Kelantan crosses and the other breeds. Although not significant (p > 0.05), Friesian crosses showed a higher percentage incidence of AOC than beef cows (40% vs 36.4%), with major types being PLP (26.7%) in dairy and cessation of ovarian cycle (27.3%) in beef cows. Compared with beef heifers, beef cows showed a higher percentage of AOC (36.4% vs 28.6%) where again, cessation of cyclicity was the predominant abnormality. In conclusion, AOC reflected by abnormal endocrine pattern is a possible cause of reduction in fertility for dairy and beef cows beyond 90 days postpartum and heifers that fail to conceive.
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