Mobile-bearing total ankle arthroplasty is a valid treatment option for the rheumatoid ankle if proper indications are used. Aseptic loosening and persistent deformity are the most important modes of failure.
There is a near normal gait pattern in terms of joint kinematics of the knee, ankle, and foot after uneventful mobile-bearing total ankle replacement. The ground reaction forces and the EMG activity, however, do not fully normalize.
Patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis typically have a poor subchondral bone quality, endangering implant fixation. Using finite element analysis (FEA) an investigation was made to find whether a press-fit acetabular implant with a polar clearance would reduce interfacial micromotions and improve fixation compared with a standard hemispherical design. In addition, the effects of interference fit, friction, and implant material were analysed. Cups were introduced into an FEA model of a human pelvis with simulated subchondral bone plasticity. The models were loaded with a loading configuration simulating two cycles of normal walking, during which contact stresses and interfacial micromotions were monitored. Subsequently, a lever-out simulation was performed to assess the fixation strength of the various cases. A flattened cup with good bone quality produced the lowest interfacial micromotions. Poor bone decreased the fixation strength regardless of the geometry of the cup. Increasing the interference fit of the flattened cup compensated for the loss of fixation strength caused by poor bone quality. In conclusion, a flattened cup did not significantly improve implant fixation over a hemispherical cup in the case of poor bone quality. However, implant fixation can be optimized by increasing interference fit and avoiding inferior frictional properties and low-stiffness implants.
Medial malleolar lengthening osteotomy is an easy technique for the realignment of the varus ankle at the time of total ankle arthroplasty, and served as an alternative to medial ligament release or lateral ligament reconstruction.
BackgroundCompromised rheumatic bone is a potential risk factor for mechanical complications in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) in cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Increased rates of intra-operative fractures, component migration and (early) aseptic loosening are to be expected. Despite this, cementless THA is performed in cases of RA.MethodsA literature search on cementless THA in RA was performed in EMBASE (1993–2011), Medline (1966–2011) and the Cochrane Library. A systematic review was conducted with a special emphasis on mechanical complications.ResultsTwenty-three case series and five studies of implant registries were included. Acetabular fractures and/or migration of the cup were reported in 9 out of 22 studies of the cup. Proximal femoral fractures and/or subsidence of the stem were reported in 14 out of 20 studies of the stem. Six studies compared failure rates of uncemented and cemented components due to aseptic loosening. The overall failure rate ratio (uncemented/cemented) for the cup was 0.6 (95% CI: 0.14–2.60) and for the stem 0.71 (95% CI: 0.06–8.55), both favoring uncemented fixation. The failure rates in case series without a control group were compared to the NICE criteria (failure rate/1). The overall failure rate for the cup was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.50–1.88) and for the stem 0.79 (95% CI: 0.44–1.41). Failure rates of aseptic loosening of higher than 1 (favoring cemented fixation) were reported in 6 out of 26 studies of the cup and in 2 out of 25 studies of the stem. In all these studies, the inferior implant designs were blamed, and not the type of fixation or the quality of the bone.ConclusionsDespite substantial rates of mechanical stem complications, no evidence was found to establish that cementless components perform less well than cemented components. The results justify the use of cementless THA in RA patients.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether impaired ankle function after total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) affects the mechanical work during step-to-step transition and the metabolic cost of walking. Respiratory and force plate data were recorded in 11 patients and 11 healthy controls while they walked barefoot at a fixed walking speed (FWS, 1.25 m/s) and at their self-selected speed (SWS). At FWS metabolic cost of transport was 28% higher for the TAA group, but at SWS there was no significant increase. During the stepto-step transition, positive mechanical work generated by the trailing TAA leg was lower and negative mechanical work in the leading intact leg was larger. Despite the increase in mechanical work dissipation during double support, no significant differences in total mechanical work were found over a complete stride. This might be a result of methodological limitations of calculating mechanical work. Nevertheless, mechanical work dissipated during the step-to-step transition at FWS correlated significantly with metabolic cost of transport: r = .540. It was concluded that patients after successful TAA still experienced an impaired lower leg function, which contributed to an increase in mechanical energy dissipation during the step-to-step transition, and to an increase in the metabolic demand of walking.
Background and purposeTotal ankle arthroplasty (TAA) has gained popularity in recent years. If it fails, however, salvage arthrodesis must be reliable as a rescue procedure. We therefore investigated the clinical, radiographic, and subjective outcome after salvage arthrodesis in a consecutive group of patients, and concentrated on the influence of the method of fixation on union rate and on salvage in inflammatory joint disease.Patients and methodsBetween 1994 and 2005, salvage arthrodesis was performed on 18 ankles (18 patients). Diagnosis was inflammatory joint disease (IJD) in 15 cases and osteoarthritis (OA) in 3. Tibio-talar fusion was performed in 7 ankles, and tibio-talocalcaneal fusion in 11. Serial radiographs were studied for time to union. Clinical outcome at latest follow-up was measured by the AOFAS score, the foot function index (FFI) and by VAS scores for pain, function, and satisfaction.ResultsBlade plates were used in 7 ankles (4 IJD, 3 OA); all united. Nonunion developed in 7 of the 11 rheumatic ankles stabilized by other methods. 11 patients (8 fused ankles, 3 nonunions) were available for clinical evaluation. Their mean AOFAS score was 62 and mean overall FFI was 70. VAS score for pain was 20, for function 64, and for satisfaction 74. The scores were similar in united and non-united ankles.InterpretationBlade plate fixation is successful in salvage arthrodesis for failed TAA. A high nonunion rate was found after salvage ankle arthrodesis in IJD with other methods of fixation. Clinical results were fair to good.
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