This study aimed to provide an illustrated identification key to distinguish Dendrobranchiata marine shrimps which, occur in the littoral north São Paulo State as deep as to 40m. A total of 13 species were captured using a shrimp fishery boat with two double-rig nets. Monthly trawlings were carried out from 1995 to 2000 in the region of Ubatuba, SP. This key includes the commercial value of species such as the penaeids Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, F. paulensis, Litopenaeus schmitti, Artemesia longinaris and the solenocerids Pleoticus muelleri. In addition to these species, shrimps that are not of commercial interest were also include such as Rimapenaeus constrictus, Acetes americanus, Peisos petrunkevitchi and the sicionids Sicyonia dorsalis, S. typica, S. laevigata and S. parri. The key proposed here might facilitate the identification of Dendrobranchiata shrimps by a variety of users, including scientific researchers as well as people responsible for making the laws that regulate fisheries, principally in the protection period.Key words: Identification key, Dendrobranchiata, shrimps, São Paulo. ResumoO presente estudo teve como objetivo a elaboração de uma chave de identificação ilustrada para diferenciar as espécies de camarões marinhos Dendrobranchiata, com ocorrência no litoral do Estado de São Paulo até a profundidade de 40m. As 13 espécies apresentadas neste trabalho foram obtidas mediante coletas mensais durante os anos de 1995 a 2000 na região de Ubatuba, SP . Nesta chave estão incluídas as espécies de interesse econômico, como os peneídeos Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, F. paulensis, Litopenaeus schmitti, Artemesia longinaris e o solenocerídeo Pleoticus muelleri. Além destas espécies, também foram adicionados os camarões que não são alvos das frotas pesqueiras, entre eles, Rimapenaeus constrictus, Acetes americanus, Peisos petrunkevitchi e os sicionídeos Sicyonia dorsalis, S. typica, S. laevigata e S. parri. A chave proposta servirá como uma ferramenta no auxílio da identificação dos camarões Dendrobranchiata, quer seja por pesquisadores ligados à área científica, como também por pessoas relacionadas aos órgãos responsáveis pelo controle da pesca, principalmente, na época do defeso. Palavras
The Southern Ocean around Antarctica is no longer free from invasive marine species. The North Atlantic spider crab Hyas araneus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Majidae) has been recorded for the first time from the Antarctic Peninsula. Isolated for at least 25 million years, the endemic Antarctic Southern Ocean marine fauna is now being exposed to human-mediated influx of exotic species. Invasive species and polar warming combined can foster the probability of arrival and colonization by non-indigenous species, with unpredictable consequences for the Antarctic marine biota.
With the use of these methods, bacterial detection was improved from 47.6% to 95.3%, demonstrating them to be sensitive, rapid tests for diagnosis of bacterial endophthalmitis.
Aims: Retinal pharmacotherapy has gained great importance for the treatment of various retinal diseases. An increasing number of drugs have been constantly released into the market, especially for wet age-related macular disease and diabetic macular edema. In this review, the issues concerning the toxicity of current and new classes of drugs are discussed. Methods: An extensive search of the literature was performed to review various aspects of drug toxicity in retinal pharmacotherapy. The different major classes of drugs, such as corticosteroids, antibiotics, antimetabolites, antineoplastic agents, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, enzymes, fibrinolytics, miscellaneous anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic agents, as well as toxicity unrelated to the drug were identified and discussed. Results: Corticosteroids like fluocinolone, dexamethasone or triamcinolone at low dose cause little damage to the retina, but at high doses signs of toxicity have been well documented. Complications like cataract and glaucoma are quite common with corticosteroids. Aminoglycosides showed differences in the type and doses associated with toxic reactions, thereby the following order of toxicity can be described (from most toxic to least toxic): gentamicin > netilmicin = tobramycin > amikacin = kanamycin. Vancomycin at the usual dose of 1 mg is not toxic to the retina, while further studies are necessary in order to clarify the safety of new-generation quinolones. 5-Fluorouracil has been shown to be nontoxic to the retina after an injection of 2.5 mg in animals. mAbs like ranibizumab and bevacizumab were demonstrated to be safe to the retina in cell culture, animals and humans at high doses. The exact biocompatibility of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents like diclofenac needs further evaluation. Preservatives like benzyl alcohol and changes in pH or osmolarity exert an influence on the toxic effects of intravitreally applied drugs. Conclusions: A great number of drugs are now used mainly intravitreally without relevant retinal toxicity.
HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM), also known as tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), is a chronic progressive demyelinating disease that affects the spinal cord and white matter of the central nervous system. The lifetime incidence of HAM in HTLV-1 carriers is estimated to be less than 5%. Typical time of onset is in the fourth decade of life, with a female-to-male rate of 2:1. Gait disturbance and weakness and stiffness of the lower limbs are common presenting signs and symptoms of HAM. Lower extremities are affected to a much greater degree than upper extremities. Spasticity may be moderate to severe, and lower back pain is common. As the disease progresses, bladder and bowel dysfunction can occur. Sensory involvement is generally mild and can result in a variable degree of sensory loss and dysesthesia. Results of magnetic resonance imaging may be normal, or the scans show atrophy of the spinal cord and nonspecific lesions in the brain. Immunologic evidence suggests that an immune mechanism may play a role in the development of HAM. There is no effective treatment for the myelopathy. Corticosteroids, and INF-gamma may produce transient responses. Danazol, an anabolic steroid, does not improve gait and bladder function. The value of zidovudine (anti-retroviral agent) in the treatment has not been defined yet.
Resumo: A hanseníase é doença crônica infecciosa que se caracteriza por apresentar formas clínicas contrastantes, que são dependentes da interação do bacilo com a resposta imune do hospedeiro. O estudo dos processos imunológicos torna-se fundamental para o entendimento dos mecanismos envolvidos na apresentação e no desenvolvimento da doença. Neste artigo, é revisada a imunopatogê-nese da hanseníase. INTRODUÇÃOA hanseníase é uma infecção granulomatosa crônica, que afeta principalmente a pele e os nervos periféricos, sendo transmitida pelas vias aéreas superiores de pessoa a pessoa através do convívio de susceptíveis com doentes bacilíferos sem tratamento. 1 A afecção pode ser mais bem entendida se for considerada associação de duas doenças. A primeira é uma infecção crônica causada pelo Mycobacterium leprae, organismo intracelular obrigatório que induz extraordinária resposta imune nos indivíduos acometidos. A segunda é neuropatia periférica iniciada pela infecção e acompanhada por eventos imunológicos, cujas evolução e seqüelas freqüentemente se estendem por muitos anos após a cura da infecção, podendo levar a grave debilidade física, social e conseqüências psicoló-gicas. 2 A hanseníase é influenciada por fatores genéti-cos do hospedeiro, fatores ambientais, como o estado nutricional, vacinação com BCG e taxa de exposição ao M. leprae ou outras micobactérias. 3 A resposta imune é de fundamental importância para a defesa do organismo frente à exposição ao bacilo. A hanseníase caracteriza-se por apresentar alta infectividade e baixa patogenicidade, sendo a maioria da população, mais de 95% dos indivíduos, é naturalmente imune. 4,5 Na hanseníase, a alteração da resposta imune está asso-
The Guapimirim estuary is the main tributary of Guanabara bay and is located in the northeast portion. Although it is protected, this estuary has been experiencing strong anthropogenic pressure, which has led to changes in the natural characteristics. Large amounts of sewage are dumped into the bay through tributaries, thereby changing the water and bottom sediment quality. One of the main elements of sewage is phosphorus. Despite its importance to life, a high concentration of this nutrient in the environment can result in eutrophication. This work describes the phosphorus distribution in its different fractions in the bottom sediment at 16 stations located in the main channel of the Guapimirim estuary. These results are correlated with data on grain size, organic matter and calcium carbonate content in the bottom sediment and with physicochemical parameters of the bottom water. The grain size decreases toward the mouth of the estuary, whereas the organic matter and carbonate content increase. The salinity increases significantly at 3.5 km upstream from the mouth, where there is also a notable increase in fine sediments; the same site is the mean position of the salinity front. The temperature and pH increase in the same direction. The Pinorg-total ranges between 3.18 and 7.13 µmol g−1, increasing toward the mouth. The same trend is observed for the other phosphorus fractions P-Ca, P-Fe and P-f.a., which range from 0.68 to 1.91, 0.79 to 1.71 and 0.03 to 0.93 µmol g−1, respectively. The P-Ca and P-Fe fractions are the most representative in the Pinorg-total, occurring at 26.3 and 26.0 %, respectively.
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