Similar morphology and high genetic diversity poses problems in phylogenetic studies of insects. To solve these problems, mitochondrial based markers have been adopted and are increasingly used as molecular markers for phylogenetic studies. Varied markers have been used for different species of insects, viz., markers for 16S r RNA, 12S r RNA, ND (1-6 genes), ATPase and control regions. Among which protein coding gene, CO-1 is found to be best because of its advantage over others whereas, AT rich region of mitochondrial DNA is the least used marker. A recent advanced technology in phylogenetic analysis; namely mitogenomics have greatly improved this research field. This short review attempted to summarize recent studies on the application of various mitochondrial molecular markers for phylogenetic study of insects.
The present study was undertaken to test the efficacy of 11 commonly available medicinal plants and compare its efficacy in relation to larvicidal and mosquitocidal activities against larvae and adults of Anopheles stephensi (Liston). All the medicinal plants and the mixture were effective against larvae of A. stephensi as evidenced by low lethal concentration and lethal time. The lethality varied in adults and plant extracts of mixture; Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogan citratus, Artemisia annua, Justicia gendarussa, Myristica fragrans, Annona squamosa, and Centella asiatica were found to be most effective. Larval mortality between 80% and 100% was observed in mixture treatment, C. asiatica and E. globulus. The adults that emerged from all the treatments were malformed. Further, the treated larvae showed significant decrement in the levels of protein, carbohydrate, and lipids and affect negatively the presence of certain amino acids. The present findings have important implications in the practical control of mosquito larvae and adults in the aquatic ecosystem as the medicinal plants studied are commonly available in large quantities. These plant extracts are easy to prepare, inexpensive, and safe for mosquito control which might be used directly as larvicidal and mosquitocidal agents in small volume aquatic habitats or breeding sites of around human dwellings.
The significance of Brevibacillus has been documented scientifically in the published literature and commercially in heterologous recombinant protein catalogs. Brevibacillus is one of the most widespread genera of Gram-positive bacteria, recorded from the diverse environmental habitats. The high growth rate, better transformation efficiency by electroporation, availability of shuttle vectors, production of negligible amount of extracellular protease, and the constitutive expression of heterologous proteins make some strains of this genus excellent laboratory models. Regarding biotechnological applications, this genus continues to be a source of various enzymes of great biotechnological interest due to their ability to biodegrade low density polyethylene, ability to act as a candidate bio-control agent, and more recently acknowledged as a tool for the overexpression. This article reviews the properties of Brevibacillus spp. as better biological tools with varied applications.
Copper is a persistent toxic and bio-accumulative heavy metal of global concern. Continuous exposure of copper compounds of different origin is the most common form of copper poisoning and in turn adversely altering testis morphology and function and affecting sperm quality. L-carnitine has a vital role in the spermatogenesis, physiology of sperm, sperm production and quality. This study was designed to examine whether the detrimental effects of long-term copper consumption on sperm quality and testis function of Wistar albino rat could be prevented by L-carnitine therapy. The parameters included were sperm quality (concentration, viability, motility, and morphology), histopathology, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum urea, serum creatinine, serum testosterone and testis antioxidant enzyme levels (superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase), and biomarkers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and expression of heat shock protein 70 in testis). Three-month-old male Wistar rats (n = 30) were divided into six groups as group 1 (G1, 0.9% saline control), group 2 (G2, CuSO4 200 mg/kg dissolved in 0.9% saline water), groups 3 and 4 (G3 and G4, L-carnitine 50 and 100 mg/kg dissolved in 0.9% saline water, respectively), and groups 5 and 6 (G5 and G6, CuSO 200 mg/kg plus L-carnitine, 50 and 100 mg/kg dissolved in 0.9% saline water, respectively). Doses of copper (200 mg/kg) and L-carnitine (50 and 100 mg/kg) alone and in combinations along with untreated control were administered orally for 30 days. The following morphological, physiological, and biochemical alterations were observed due to chronic exposure of copper (200 mg/kg) to rats in comparison with the untreated control: (1) generation of oxidative stress through rise in testis lipid peroxidation (12.21 vs 3.5 nmol MDA equivalents/mg protein) and upregulation of heat shock protein (overexpression of HSP70 in testis), (2) liver and kidney dysfunction [elevation in serum ALT (81.65 vs 48.08 IU/L), AST (156.82 vs 88.25 IU/L), ALP (230.54 vs 148.16 IU/L), urea (12.65 vs 7.45 mmol/L), and creatinine (80.61 vs 48.25 μmol/L) levels], (3) significant decrease in body (99.64 vs 106.09 g) and organ weights (liver-3.48 vs 4.99 g; kidney-429.29 vs 474.78 mg; testes-0.58 vs 0.96 g), (4) imbalance in hormonal and antioxidant enzyme concentrations [significant decline in serum testosterone (0.778 vs 3.226 ng/mL), superoxide dismutase (3.07 vs 8.55 μmol/mg protein), and glutathione-S-transferase (59.28 vs 115.58 nmol/mg protein) levels], (5) severe alterations in the testis histomorphology [sloughed cells (90.65%, score 4 vs 15.65%, score 1), vacuolization (85.95%, score 4 vs 11.45%, score 1), cellular debris along with degenerative characteristics, accentuated germ cell depletion in the seminiferous epithelium, severe damage of spermatogonia and Sertoli cells (73.56%, score 3 vs 0%, score 1)], (6) suppression of spermatogenic process [hypospermatogenesis (low Jhonsen testicular biopsy score 4 vs 9.5), decrease in tubules...
The age-associated imbalances between proliferation and apoptosis lead to impaired spermatogenesis and infertility. The age-associated decline in vitamin D3 levels has been reported and suggested the anti-aging potential of vitamin D3. However, the age-associated decline levels of vitamin D3 has not been studied in relation to the testicular activity. Thus, we investigated the effect of vitamin D3 on the expression of testicular proliferation markers, apoptotic markers, antioxidants system and oxidative stress in a D-gal-induced aged rat model. The present study investigated the levels of vitamin D3 and AGE in serum and testes along with the expression of the AGE-receptor (AGER) in the testis. Vitamin D3 treatment significantly increases cell proliferation and decreases apoptosis in a D-gal-induced aged rat testis. Furthermore, vitamin D3 significantly decreases oxidative stress in aged rat testis by improving the antioxidant defense systems. The expression of AGER was down-regulated by vitamin D3 treatment in aged testis. The circulating and intra-testicular AGE was higher in aged groups, however, only circulating vitamin D3 levels decreased in aged groups. The immunolocalization of VDR showed increased immunostaining in the testis by vitamin D3 treatment. Thus, it can be concluded that vitamin D3 delays testicular senescence by regulating proliferation and apoptosis.
The toxicity of four concentrations (1, 5, 10 and 20% w/v) of an aqueous extract from the weed, Clerodendrum viscosum Ventenat (Verbenaceae) was investigated under field conditions of the North Bengal University, Darjeeling, West Bengal, India for managing two major pests of tea, Camellia sinensis (L), namely the tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse, (Heteroptera: Miridae) and the tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner, (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Four field trials, two for red spider mite and two for tea mosquito bug, were conducted during April-May 2008 and October-November 2009 following a Randomized Block design. The aqueous extract of C. viscosum effectively and significantly reduced the mite population as well as infestation of tea mosquito bug by 68-95% and 73-86%, respectively, and their bioefficacy is comparable to synthetic and neem pesticides. No phytotoxic effect (score 0-5% and grade 1) was observed in the tea bushes sprayed with different doses of aqueous extract of C. viscosum in the field. Made tea samples were taint free. Organoleptic test revealed leaf-infusions and liquor strength as good, scoring 6.5-7.0 on a 10 point scale. Availability and distribution of this weed (C. viscosum) in and around teagrowing areas of sub Himalayan region, along with its processing for the feasibility of including C. visosum extracts in the current IPM programme is discussed.
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