SUMMARY Activity-dependent CREB phosphorylation and gene expression are critical for long-term neuronal plasticity. Local signaling at CaV1 channels triggers these events but how information is relayed onward to the nucleus remains unclear. Here we report a novel mechanism that mediates long-distance communication within cells: a shuttle that transports Ca2+/calmodulin from the surface membrane to the nucleus. We show that the shuttle protein is γCaMKII, that its phosphorylation at Thr287 by βCaMKII protects the Ca2+/CaM signal, and that CaN triggers its nuclear translocation. Both βCaMKII and CaN act in close proximity to CaV1 channels, supporting their dominance, while γCaMKII operates as a carrier, not as a kinase. Upon arrival within the nucleus, Ca2+/CaM activates CaMKK and its substrate CaMKIV, the CREB kinase. This mechanism resolves longstanding puzzles about CaM/CaMK-dependent signaling to the nucleus. The significance of the mechanism is emphasized by dysregulation of CaV1, γCaMKII, βCaMKII and CaN in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders.
Here we describe development of transgenic elite rice lines expressing a Bt fusion gene derived from cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) under the control of rice actinI promoter. The lines used in the study were indica CMS restorer line of Minghui 63 and its derived hybrid rice Shanyou 63. The level of Bt fusion protein CryIA(b)/CryIA(c) detected in Minghui 63 (T51-1) plants was 20 ng/mg soluble protein. The Bt Shanyou 63 was field-tested in natural and repeated heavy manual infestation of two lepidopteran insects, leaffolder and yellow stem borer. The transgenic hybrid plants showed high protection against both insect pests without reduced yield.
The canonical microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis pathway requires two RNaseIII enzymes: Drosha and Dicer. To understand their functions in mammals in vivo, we engineered mice with germline or tissue-specific inactivation of the genes encoding these two proteins. Changes in proteomic and transcriptional profiles that were shared in Dicer-and Drosha-deficient mice confirmed the requirement for both enzymes in canonical miRNA biogenesis. However, deficiency in Drosha or Dicer did not always result in identical phenotypes, suggesting additional functions. We found that, in early-stage thymocytes, Drosha recognizes and directly cleaves many protein-coding messenger RNAs (mRNAs) with secondary stem-loop structures. In addition, we identified a subset of miRNAs generated by a Dicer-dependent but Drosha-independent mechanism. These were distinct from previously described mirtrons. Thus, in mammalian cells, Dicer is required for the biogenesis of multiple classes of miRNAs. Together, these findings extend the range of function of RNaseIII enzymes beyond canonical miRNA biogenesis, and help explain the nonoverlapping phenotypes caused by Drosha and Dicer deficiency.[Keywords: RNaseIII enzymes; microRNA targets; microRNA processing; endonucleolytic cleavage] Supplemental material is available at http://www.genesdev.org.
Cardiolipin is a specific mitochondrial phospholipid that has a high affinity for proteins and that stabilizes the assembly of supercomplexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. We found that sequestration of cardiolipin in protein complexes is critical to protect it from degradation. The turnover of cardiolipin is slower by almost an order of magnitude than the turnover of other phospholipids. However, in Barth syndrome, cardiolipin is rapidly degraded via the intermediate monolyso-cardiolipin. Treatments that induce supercomplex assembly decrease the turnover of cardiolipin and the concentration of monolyso-cardiolipin whereas dissociation of supercomplexes has the opposite effect. Our data suggest that cardiolipin is uniquely protected from normal lipid turnover by its association with proteins, but in Barth syndrome, where this association is compromised, cardiolipin becomes unstable, which causes the accumulation of monolyso-cardiolipin.
Background: The adult mammalian heart has limited regenerative capacity, mostly attributable to postnatal cardiomyocyte cell cycle arrest. In the last 2 decades, numerous studies have explored cardiomyocyte cell cycle regulatory mechanisms to enhance myocardial regeneration after myocardial infarction. Pkm2 (Pyruvate kinase muscle isoenzyme 2) is an isoenzyme of the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase. The role of Pkm2 in cardiomyocyte proliferation, heart development, and cardiac regeneration is unknown. Methods: We investigated the effect of Pkm2 in cardiomyocytes through models of loss (cardiomyocyte-specific Pkm2 deletion during cardiac development) or gain using cardiomyocyte-specific Pkm2 modified mRNA to evaluate Pkm2 function and regenerative affects after acute or chronic myocardial infarction in mice. Results: Here, we identify Pkm2 as an important regulator of the cardiomyocyte cell cycle. We show that Pkm2 is expressed in cardiomyocytes during development and immediately after birth but not during adulthood. Loss of function studies show that cardiomyocyte-specific Pkm2 deletion during cardiac development resulted in significantly reduced cardiomyocyte cell cycle, cardiomyocyte numbers, and myocardial size. In addition, using cardiomyocyte-specific Pkm2 modified RNA, our novel cardiomyocyte-targeted strategy, after acute or chronic myocardial infarction, resulted in increased cardiomyocyte cell division, enhanced cardiac function, and improved long-term survival. We mechanistically show that Pkm2 regulates the cardiomyocyte cell cycle and reduces oxidative stress damage through anabolic pathways and β-catenin. Conclusions: We demonstrate that Pkm2 is an important intrinsic regulator of the cardiomyocyte cell cycle and oxidative stress, and highlight its therapeutic potential using cardiomyocyte-specific Pkm2 modified RNA as a gene delivery platform.
A multifunctional additive of guanidinium chloride (GuCl) in a CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite absorber enabled a high open-circuit voltage of over 1.0 V for printable mesoscopic perovskite solar cells based on a TiO2/ZrO2/carbon architecture.
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are proteins that upon ligand stimulation undergo dimerization and autophosphorylation. Eph receptors (EphRs) are RTKs that are found in different cell types, from both tissues that are developing and from mature tissues and play important roles in the development of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. EphRs also play roles in synapse formation, neural crest formation, angiogenesis and in remodeling the vascular system. Interaction of EphRs with their ephrin ligands leads to activation of signal transduction pathways and to formation of many transient protein-protein interactions that ultimately leads to cytoskeletal remodeling. However, the sequence of events at the molecular level is not well-understood. We used Blue Native PAGE (BN-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS) to analyze the transient protein-protein interactions that resulted from stimulation of EphB2 receptors by their ephrinB1-Fc ligands. We analyzed the phosphotyrosine-containing protein complexes immunoprecipitated (pY-IPs) from the cell lysates of both unstimulated (−) and ephrinB1-Fc-stimulated (+) NG108 cells. Our experiments allowed us to identify many signaling proteins, either known to be part of EphB2 signaling or new for this pathway, which are involved in transient protein-protein interactions upon ephrinB1-Fc stimulation. These data led us to investigate the roles in EphB2 signaling of proteins such as FAK, WAVEs, and Nischarin.
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