Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects.We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives. Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) and DIVERSITAS, the TRY database (TRY-not an acronym, rather a statement of sentiment; https ://www.try-db.org; Kattge et al., 2011) was proposed with the explicit assignment to improve the availability and accessibility of plant trait data for ecology and earth system sciences. The Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) offered to host the database and the different groups joined forces for this community-driven program. Two factors were key to the success of TRY: the support and trust of leaders in the field of functional plant ecology submitting large databases and the long-term funding by the Max Planck Society, the MPI-BGC and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, which has enabled the continuous development of the TRY database.
The addition to bevacizumab to carboplatin/paclitaxel was well tolerated and resulted in a clinically meaningful treatment benefit in Chinese patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC.
Soybean improvement via plant breeding has been critical for the success of the crop. The objective of this study was to quantify genetic change in yield and other traits that occurred during the past 80 yr of North American soybean breeding in Maturity Groups (MGs) II, III, and IV. Historic sets of 60 MG II, 59 MG III, and 49 MG IV soybean cultivars, released from 1923 to 2008, were evaluated in field trials conducted in 17 U.S. states and one Canadian province during 2010 to 2011. Averaged over 27 MG II and MG IV and 26 MG III site-years of data, the estimated rates of yield improvement during the 80 yr were 23 kg ha -1 yr -1 for MGs II and III, and 20 kg ha -1 yr -1 for MG IV cultivars. However, a two-segment linear regression model provided a better fit to the data and indicated that the average current rate of genetic yield gain across MGs is 29 kg ha -1 yr -1 . Modern cultivars yielded more than old cultivars in all environments, but particularly in high-yielding environments. New cultivars in the historic sets used in this study are shorter in height, mature later, lodge less, and have seeds with less protein and greater oil concentration. Given that on-farm soybean yields in the United States are also increasing at a rate of 29 kg ha -1 yr -1 , it can be inferred that continual release of greater-yielding cultivars has been a substantive driver of the U.S. onfarm realized yield increases.
BackgroundSoybean (Glycine max) is a photoperiod-sensitive and self-pollinated species. Days to flowering (DTF) and maturity (DTM), duration of flowering-to-maturity (DFTM) and plant height (PH) are crucial for soybean adaptability and yield. To dissect the genetic architecture of these agronomically important traits, a population consisting of 309 early maturity soybean germplasm accessions was genotyped with the Illumina Infinium SoySNP50K BeadChip and phenotyped in multiple environments. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using a mixed linear model that involves both relative kinship and population structure.ResultsThe linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed slowly in soybean, and a substantial difference in LD pattern was observed between euchromatic and heterochromatic regions. A total of 27, 6, 18 and 27 loci for DTF, DTM, DFTM and PH were detected via GWAS, respectively. The Dt1 gene was identified in the locus strongly associated with both DTM and PH. Ten candidate genes homologous to Arabidopsis flowering genes were identified near the peak single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with DTF. Four of them encode MADS-domain containing proteins. Additionally, a pectin lyase-like gene was also identified in a major-effect locus for PH where LD decayed rapidly.ConclusionsThis study identified multiple new loci and refined chromosomal regions of known loci associated with DTF, DTM, DFTM and/or PH in soybean. It demonstrates that GWAS is powerful in dissecting complex traits and identifying candidate genes although LD decayed slowly in soybean. The loci and trait-associated SNPs identified in this study can be used for soybean genetic improvement, especially the major-effect loci associated with PH could be used to improve soybean yield potential. The candidate genes may serve as promising targets for studies of molecular mechanisms underlying the related traits in soybean.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1441-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The impact of knowledge transfer on foreign subsidiary performance has been a major focus of research on knowledge management in multinational enterprises (MNEs). By integrating the knowledge-based view and the expatriation literature, this study examines the relationship between a multinational firm's knowledge (i.e. marketing and technological knowledge), its use of expatriates, and the performance of its foreign subsidiaries. We conceptualize that expatriates play a contingent role in facilitating the transfer and redeployment of a parent firm's knowledge to its subsidiary, depending on the location specificity of the organizational knowledge being transferred and the time of transfer. Our analysis of 1660 foreign subsidiaries of Japanese firms over a 15-year period indicates that the number of expatriates relative to the total number of subsidiary employees (1) strengthened the effect of a parent firm's technological knowledge (with low location specificity) on subsidiary performance in the short term, but (2) weakened the impact of the parent firm's marketing knowledge (with high location specificity) on subsidiary performance in the long term. We also found that the expatriates' influence on knowledge transfer eventually disappeared. The implications for knowledge transfer research and the expatriate management literature are discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Society for the Advancement of Management Studies.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel and lethal infectious disease, posing a threat to global health security. The number of cases has increased rapidly, but no data concerning kidney transplant (KTx) recipients infected with COVID-19 are available. To present the epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of KTx recipients infected with COVID-19, we report on a case series of five patients who were confirmed as having COVID-19 through nucleic acid testing (NAT) from January 1, 2020 to February 28, 2020. The most common symptoms on admission to hospital were fever (five patients, 100%), cough (five patients, 100%), myalgia or fatigue (three patients, 60%), and sputum production (three patients, 60%); serum creatinine or urea nitrogen levels were slightly higher than those before symptom onset. Four patients received a reduced dose of maintenance immunosuppressive therapy during hospitalization. As of March 4, 2020 NAT was negative for COVID-19 in three patients twice in succession, and their computed tomography scans showed improved images. Although greater patient numbers and long-term follow-up data are needed, our series demonstrates that mild COVID-19 infection in KTx recipients can be managed using symptomatic support therapy combined with adjusted maintenance immunosuppressive therapy.
Cochlear frequency selectivity in lower vertebrates arises in part from electrical tuning intrinsic to the sensory hair cells. The resonant frequency is determined largely by the gating kinetics of calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels encoded by the slo gene. Alternative splicing of slo from chick cochlea generated kinetically distinct BK channels. Combination with accessory beta subunits slowed the gating kinetics of alpha splice variants but preserved relative differences between them. In situ hybridization showed that the beta subunit is preferentially expressed by low-frequency (apical) hair cells in the avian cochlea. Interaction of beta with alpha splice variants could provide the kinetic range needed for electrical tuning of cochlear hair cells.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers