Using a multiple linear regression analysis of nearly six years of WINDII records, an empirical formula is determined to predict the altitude of the peak of the OH nightglow emission. More than 50,000 altitude profiles of volume emission rate collected by WINDII for the OH (8-3) band P 1 (3) line emission during November 1991 to August 1997 over latitudes 40°S-40°N are used. The peak altitudes of these profiles increase with decreasing integrated emission rates and are almost completely described by the integrated emission rates. However the fitting is improved when a solar cycle dependence is considered. A slight further improvement results from incorporating a sinusoidal annual/semi-annual component for data from the midlatitude region. With this formula, more than 87% of the calculated peak altitudes lie within a 1 km difference of the measured values for the mid-latitude region.
This paper examines the effects of childlessness on the well-being of persons aged 65 and above in China. It is based on an application of ordered-logit regression in the analysis of the data from the 2002 wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) conducted in 22 provinces of China (N = 13,447). It compares parents with the childless elderly, focusing on three dimensions of psychological well-being, namely feelings of anxiety, loneliness, and uselessness, and on life satisfaction. The findings include the following. First, with control of social demographic variables of age, gender and education, childlessness is significantly associated with life satisfaction, feeling of anxiety and loneliness, but not feeling of uselessness. The childless elderly are less satisfied with their lives and feel more anxious and lonely than do parents, but they do not necessarily feel significantly more useless. Second, when controlled with social-demographic variables and additional socioeconomic variables of residence, living arrangement, availability of pension and medical services, childlessness is no longer significantly related to anxiety and loneliness, and it is related at only a marginally-significant level to life satisfaction. Third, individual education, place of residence, living arrangements, economic security and access to medical services are consistently related to life satisfaction and psychological well-being among the elderly. We conclude that providing social investments in education in early life and economic security and medical insurance in later life for both the childless and parents are crucial for improving individual psychological well-being and life satisfaction for the elderly.
Gravity waves have a significant impact on both the dynamics and energy budget of the Martian thermosphere. Strong density variations of spatial scales indicative of gravity waves have previously been identified in this region by using in situ observations. Here we use observations from the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) mass spectrometer on Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN Mission to identify such waves in the observations of different atmospheric species. The wave signatures seen in CO2 and Ar are almost identical, whereas the wave signature seen in N2, which is lighter and has a larger scale height, is generally smaller in amplitude and slightly out of phase with those seen in CO2 and Ar. Examination of the observed wave properties in these three species suggests that relatively long vertical wavelength atmospheric gravity waves are the likely source of the waves seen by NGIMS in the upper thermosphere. A two‐fluid linear model of the wave perturbations in CO2 and N2 has been used to find the best fit intrinsic wave parameters that match the observed features in these two species. We report the first observationally based estimate of the heating and cooling rates of the Martian thermosphere created by the waves observed in this region. The observed wave density amplitudes are anticorrelated with the background atmospheric temperature. The estimated heating rates show a weak positive correlation with the wave amplitude, whereas the cooling rates show a clearer negative correlation with the wave amplitude. Our estimates support previous model‐based findings that atmospheric gravity waves are a significant source of both heating and cooling.
First high‐altitude observations of gravity wave (GW)‐induced CO2 density perturbations in the Martian thermosphere retrieved from NASA's Neutral Gas Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) instrument on board the Mars Atmosphere Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) satellite are presented and interpreted using the extended GW parameterization of Yiğit et al. (2008) and the Mars Climate Database as an input. Observed relative density perturbations between 180 and 220 km of 20–40% demonstrate appreciable local time, latitude, and altitude variations. Modeling for the spatiotemporal conditions of the MAVEN observations suggests that GWs can directly propagate from the lower atmosphere to the thermosphere, produce appreciable dynamical effects, and likely contribute to the observed fluctuations. Modeled effects are somewhat smaller than the observed, but their highly variable nature is in qualitative agreement with observations. Possible reasons for discrepancies between modeling and measurements are discussed.
C anadians provide significant amounts of unpaid care to elderly family members and friends with long-term health problems. While some information is available on the nature of the tasks unpaid caregivers perform, and the amounts of time they spend on these tasks, the contribution of unpaid caregivers is often hidden. (It is recognized that some caregiving may be for short periods of time or may entail matters better described as "help" or "assistance," such as providing transportation. However, we use caregiving to cover the full range of unpaid care provided from some basic help to personal care.) Aggregate estimates of the market costs to replace the unpaid care provided are important to governments for policy development as they provide a means to situate the contributions of unpaid caregivers within Canada's healthcare system. The purpose of this study was to obtain an assessment of the imputed costs of replacing the unpaid care provided by Canadians to the elderly. (Imputed costs is used to refer to costs that would be incurred if the care provided by an unpaid caregiver was, instead, provided by a paid caregiver, on a direct hour-for-hour substitution basis.) The economic value of unpaid care as understood in this study is defined as the cost to replace the services provided by unpaid caregivers at rates for paid care providers. Methods and Data Sources
We report the observations of longitudinal variations in the Martian thermosphere associated with nonmigrating tides. Using the Neutral Gas Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) and the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) on NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN Mission (MAVEN) spacecraft, this study presents the first combined analysis of in situ and remote observations of atmospheric tides at Mars for overlapping volumes, local times, and overlapping date ranges. From the IUVS observations, we determine the altitude and latitudinal variation of the amplitude of the nonmigrating tidal signatures, which is combined with the NGIMS, providing information on the compositional impact of these waves. Both the observations of airglow from IUVS and the CO2 density observations from NGIMS reveal a strong wave number 2 signature in a fixed local time frame. The IUVS observations reveal a strong latitudinal dependence in the amplitude of the wave number 2 signature. Combining this with the accurate CO2 density observations from NGIMS, this would suggest that the CO2 density variation is as high as 27% at 0–10° latitude. The IUVS observations reveal little altitudinal dependence in the amplitude of the wave number 2 signature, varying by only 20% from 160 to 200 km. Observations of five different species with NGIMS show that the amplitude of the wave number 2 signature varies in proportion to the inverse of the species scale height, giving rise to variation in composition as a function of longitude. The analysis and discussion here provide a roadmap for further analysis as additional coincident data from these two instruments become available.
 Recent studies of the equatorial ionosphere have found evidence of forcing by atmospheric Ultra Fast Kelvin (UFK) waves. This study investigates the quasi-3-day UFK wave and its effects on the variations of the ionosphere at low latitudes and midlatitudes using coordinated observations of both the atmosphere and ionosphere during the January 2010 URSI World Day campaign. The global maps of TEC from the IGS ground-based GPS product demonstrate a 3-day periodic variation during January 15-25. This variation has the largest amplitude at 15 magnetic latitude and extends into lower latitudes. Simultaneously, a 3-day wave is observed in the mesosphere in the zonal wind measurements by a meteor radar at the magnetic equator. The latitudinal range of the TEC variation (20 S-20 N) is also consistent with that of the 3-day wave. The Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) observations show a 3-day signature in vertical ion drifts over Jicamarca (11.9 S, 76 W) and in the electron densities in the top side of ionosphere measured from Millstone Hill (42.6 N, 71.5 W). This signature is consistent with the fountain effect in the equatorial region, and shows the impact on the topside ionosphere at midlatitudes. The UFK wave is trapped within AE30 geographic latitude, but this study shows that the effects of the wave could reach the ionosphere at the higher latitude even as high as 40 N (50 N magnetic latitude).
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