Obesity is considered a chronic low-grade inflammatory state associated with a chronic oxidative stress caused by superoxide production (O(2)(-)). The superoxide dismutase manganese dependent (SOD2) catalyzes O(2)(-) in H(2)O(2) into mitochondria and is encoded by a single gene that presents a common polymorphism that results in the replacement of alanine (A) with a valine (V) in the 16 codon. This polymorphism has been implicated in a decreased efficiency of SOD2 transport into targeted mitochondria in V allele carriers. Previous studies described an association between VV genotype and metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes. However, the causal mechanisms to explain this association need to be more elucidated. We postulated that the polymorphism could influence the inflammatory response. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated the in vitro cytokines production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) carrier's different Ala16Val-SOD2 genotypes (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ). Additionally, we evaluated if the culture medium glucose, enriched insulin, could influence the cytokine production. Higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines were observed in VV-PBMCs when compared to AA-PBMCs. However, the culture medium glucose and enriched insulin did not affect cytokine production. The results suggest that Ala16Val-SOD2 gene polymorphism could trigger the PBMCs proinflammatory cytokines level. However, discerning if a similar mechanism occurs in fat cells is an open question.
Highly ordered TiO2 NT arrays were easily decorated with CdSe via RF magnetron sputtering. After deposition thermal annealing at different temperatures was performed to obtain an improved TiO2/CdSe interface. The heterostructures were characterized by RBS, SEM, XRD, HRTEM, UV-Vis, EIS, IPCE and current versus voltage curves. The sensitized semiconducting electrodes display an enhanced photocurrent density of ca. 2 mA cm(-2) at 0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) under visible light (λ > 400 nm). The sensitized photoelectrodes displayed 3 and 535-fold enhanced photocurrent when compared to bare TiO2 NTs under 1 sun and under visible light illumination, respectively. IES results confirmed the improved charge transfer across the TiO2/CdSe/electrolyte interface after annealing at 400 °C. Incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency measurements confirmed the efficient sensitization by allowing photoresponse in the visible range.
Objective: This study aimed to analyze the immediate effects of concurrent training on leptin and cortisol levels in overweighed young adults. Methods: This study used a quasi-experimental methodology. We included 20 volunteers of both sexes, randomly divided into a training competitor group (TCG n = 10) and a control group (C n = 10). Blood collection was performed in individuals at rest after fasting for 12 hours. The leptin and cortisol levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay and chemiluminescence immunoassay before and immediately after training. Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis with a significance level of p <0.05. Results: In the analysis of leptin levels, there was significant difference between groups (TCG x C) in the pre intervention (p = 0.02) and post intervention (p = 0.01). In the intra groups, no significant changes were found, and in the analysis of cortisol levels between groups (TGC x C), a significant difference in the pre intervention (p = 0.01) and post intervention (p = 0.01) was observed; however, in the intra groups there were no significant changes. Conclusion: A single concurrent training session is not sufficient to promote acute changes in the leptin and cortisol levels of the volunteer overweighed young adults in this study.
This study is aimed at assessing the scientific evidence on the effect of the intake of sesame seeds and derivatives on oxidative stress of individuals with systemic hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review was conducted in seven databases (Lilacs, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Trip Database, and Scielo) from September 2013 to January 2014. Clinical trials on the intake of sesame seeds and derivatives assessing the outcomes related to oxidative stress were retrieved. The risk of bias in the results of the studies selected was assessed according to the criteria of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. This review included seven clinical trials showing that the intake of sesame resulted in the increase in enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, as well as in a reduction in oxidative stress markers. This was mainly observed with the use of sesame oil for hypertensive individuals during 2 months and black sesame meal capsules for prehypertensive individuals during four weeks. Most studies involved a small number of participants, sample size being considered a limiting factor for this review. In addition, a significant heterogeneity was observed in the type of population studied and the type of sesame and derivatives used, as well as their amount. The follow-up time was considered a limiting factor, because it varied in the different studies. The high risk of randomization and blinding biases found in the studies assessed determines lower scientific evidence of the results. Despite the limitations and biases identified in this systematic review, sesame showed relevant effects on oxidative stress, suggesting it could increase the antioxidant capacity.
To observe the dynamics of thromboembolism (TE) in an animal model, a carotid-carotid arterial ex vivo shunt was developed. A coronary stent deployed in a 3.5 mm polyvinylchloride (PVC) tubing segment was used as a model device in the shunt. A light-scattering microemboli detector monitored the embolic content of the blood flowing through the shunt at 50-150 ml/min as determined by a clamp-on ultrasound flow probe. The stent was found to actively develop thrombi and release emboli for 1-3 hours when the activated clotting time (ACT) was maintained between 125 and 150 seconds. The shunt flow rate fluctuated considerably (from 50 to 150 ml/min) depending on the animal's activity. When the time profile of this fluctuating flow rate was super imposed on the time profile of embolization, it was noted that sudden increases in flow rate were associated with incidents of embolization. Statistically, sudden flow rate increases of 100% or more were accompanied by embolic events 95% of the time (p < 0.01). Based on the results of this study, it was postulated that the increased embolization may be due to the fluid forces associated with accelerating flow. To explore this postulate, in vitro studies were conducted to compare the effects of pulsatile flow with steady flow on stent induced TE. Results of this study suggested a significant increase (100%) in both stent thrombosis and embolism during pulsatile flow compared with steady flow.
Introdução: A combinação do exercício cardiorrespiratório (EC) com treinamento de força (TF), denominada treinamento concorrente (TC), pode favorecer o organismo com adaptações aeróbicas e musculares. Contudo, o EC parece influenciar negativamente o desempenho em força muscular de forma aguda e crônica.Objetivo: Comparar os efeitos do TF e de TC sobre a força muscular entre praticantes de TF e TC.Métodos: Estudo seccional, com amostra por conveniência, do qual participaram 12 mulheres com média de idade de 35 ± 2,99 anos, praticantes de TF (n=6) e de TC (n=6) há pelo menos seis meses. Foi realizado o teste de repetições máximas (RM) no exercício cadeira extensora e utilizada a equação de estimativa de Epley: 1RM= [(0,0333 x C) x R] + C, onde C= carga utilizada e R= número de repetições máximas realizadas. A partir dos resultados, a força máxima dos grupos foi estimada. Realizou-se medidas de tendência central e de dispersão. Foi utilizado o teste de normalidade de Shapiro-Wilk, e o teste t de Student para amostras independentes, com nível de significância de p<0,05.Resultados: A média dos resultados do teste de força máxima foi de 101,67 ± 19,37 kg no grupo TF e de 86,87 ± 11,61 kg no grupo TC. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa (p=0,13).Conclusão: Não foi observada diferença significativa na força entre mulheres praticantes de TF e de TC, sugerindo que o TC não teve efeito negativo sobre essa qualidade física nas voluntárias avaliadas.Muscle Strength in Women: A Comparative Study on Strength Training and Concurrent TrainingIntroduction: The concurrent training is the combination between aerobic and strength exercise. It can produce aerobic and neuromuscular changes. The aerobic training seems to have a negative influence on strength exercise.Objective: To compare the strength levels between strength training (ST) and concurrent training (CT) female practitioners.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 12 women, mean age of 35 ± 2.99 years, who were practitioners of ST (n = 6) and CT (n = 6) for at least six months. Maximum repetitions (MR) test was held and the results were applied on estimative equation described by Epley: [(0.0333 x L) x R] + L, where L corresponds to Load, and R to the maximum number of repetitions. Data were collected with knee extensor exercise, and from the obtained results the maximum strength values were estimated. It was used descriptive statistics. Normality and Student T test. The p-value was p<0.05.Results: CT group presented 1RM values of 86.87 ± 11.61 kg, while ST group presented values of 101.67 ± 19.37 kg. It’s possible to observe that, despite of the highest mean value of ST group, no significant difference (p=0.13) on estimated maximum strength was observed between the studied groups.Conclusion: At the present study, no difference on maximum strength was observed between the practitioners of ST and CT, suggesting that there was no negative interference of CT on this variable in the participants.
ObjectIve: to investigate the effects of concurrent training (ct) on serum leptin, cortisol and zinc concentrations in physically active adults. DesIGN: ten subjects aged (27.1±4.8 years, bMI 25.49 ± 2.65) were recruited to participate in three sessions: control session (cs), concurrent training 1 (ct1) and concurrent training 2 (ct2) sessions with five days of resting between them. In each session blood samples for leptin, cortisol and zinc determination were collected. ct1 session included indoor cycling class followed by strength training. ct2 session included strength training, followed by indoor cycling class. In cs there were no exercises. the shapiro-Wilk test, repeated ANOvA test and tukey Post-Hoc test were used. resULts: there was a reduction in leptin levels after CT1 (Δ% = -16.04; p = 0.05) and CT2 (Δ% = -8.54; p = 0.02). Cortisol also showed a reduction after CT1 (Δ% = -26.32; p = 0.02) and CT2 (Δ% = -33.57; p = 0.05), whereas zinc did not show any significant alterations after any of the training sessions. there was also significant difference for the leptin and cortisol values between ct1 and ct2. cONcLUsIONs: ct promoted reduction in serum leptin and cortisol levels independently of the training order, while no significant changes in zinc concentrations were observed.
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