Cannabidiol (CBD), a Cannabis sativa constituent, may present a pharmacological profile similar to mood stabilizing drugs, in addition to anti-oxidative and neuroprotective properties. The present study aims to directly investigate the effects of CBD in an animal model of mania induced by D-amphetamine (D-AMPH). In the first model (reversal treatment), rats received saline or D-AMPH (2 mg/kg) once daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) for 14 days, and from the 8th to the 14th day, they were treated with saline or CBD (15, 30 or 60 mg/kg) i.p. twice a day. In the second model (prevention treatment), rats were pretreated with saline or CBD (15, 30, or 60 mg/kg) regime i.p. twice a day, and from the 8th to the 14th day, they also received saline or D-AMPH i.p. once daily. In the hippocampus CBD (15 mg/kg) reversed the d-AMPH-induced damage and increased (30 mg/kg) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. In the second experiment, CBD (30 or 60 mg/kg) prevented the D-AMPH-induced formation of carbonyl group in the prefrontal cortex. In the hippocampus and striatum the D-AMPH-induced damage was prevented by CBD (15, 30 or 60 mg/kg). At both treatments CBD did not present any effect against d-AMPH-induced hyperactivity. In conclusion, we could not observe effects on locomotion, but CBD protect against d-AMPH-induced oxidative protein damage and increased BDNF levels in the reversal model and these effects vary depending on the brain regions evaluated and doses of CBD administered.
RESUMOEste estudo indicou os produtos florestais não madeireiros (PFNM) associados a espécies arbóreas dos remanescentes de Floresta Ombrófila Densa estudados no Sul de Santa Catarina. As espécies analisadas foram hierarquizadas com base na análise de valor potencial de exploração sustentável (VPES) dos PFNM, integrando-se às seguintes informações obtidas a partir de revisão bibliográfica: densidade, parte usada, capacidade de regeneração natural e crescimento, conhecimento sobre biologia reprodutiva e dinâmica populacional, processamento requerido e nível de injúria ou toxicidade. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam ser possível a conservação e desenvolvimento regional, a partir de alternativas sustentáveis de uso dos recursos florestais. Das 79 espécies observadas, 38 atingiram VPES igual ou superior a 10, sendo consideradas de elevado potencial de exploração sustentável de PFNM. Palavras-chave: Floresta Ombrófila Densa; biodiversidade; VPES; recursos naturais.
ABSTRACTThis study indicated the non-timber forest products (NTFPs) associated with tree species of the remnants of Tropical Rain Forest studied in southern Santa Catarina. The species examined were ranked according to their potential value for sustainable exploitation (PVSE) of NTFP, applying the following information obtained from literature review: density, parts used, capacity for natural regeneration and growth, knowledge about reproductive biology and population dynamic, required processing and level of injury or toxicity. The results show possible conservation and regional development, from alternative sustainable use of forest resources. Of the 79 species observed, 38 reached PVSE equal or higher than 10, being considered of high potential for sustainable exploitation of NTFP.
In this study, we examined the distribution and conservation status of understory palms in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina using data collected by the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina (IFFSC). Understory palms were systematically sampled within sampling units (SU) distributed over a state-wide 10 × 10 km grid. Among the 206 total SU monitored by IFFSC within Pluvial and Coastal Forest, 86% (n=177 SU) contained understory palms, comprising 1738 individuals from the following species: Bactris setosa, Geonoma elegans, G. gamiova, and G. schottiana. To explore the conservation status of understory palm populations in Santa Catarina, we overlaid a map of federal priority conservation areas on top of IFFSC distribution data for understory palms. Conservation priority levels defined by the Brazilian Environmental Agency (MMA) are rated Extremely High, Very High, High and Insufficiently Known. Ninety-four percent of the SU containing understory palms overlapped priority conservation areas, highlighting the centrality of understory palms in biodiversity conservation. Despite the wide distribution of understory palm communities in Santa Catarina, intense scrutiny of forest remnants is necessary in view of sensitivity to environmental disturbance, so as to guarantee the maintenance of understory palm populations and their ecosystem services.
A Pilot Reclamation Project (PRP) was developed in 1982 by the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Santa Catarina-Brazil, with the objective to evaluating the adaptation of woody species to a land degraded by coal mining. After a full topographic reconstitution of the landscape, addition of nutrient load and sowing of herbaceous species, the area was split into 12 plots in which seedlings of 12 tree species were planted: three native trees [Bastardiopsis densiflora (Hook. & Arn.) Hassl., Mimosa scabrella Benth., Schizolobium parahyba (Vell.) Blake] and nine exotic species [Eucalyptus saligna Sm., E. viminalis Labill., E. citriodora Hook., Grevillea hilliana F.Muell., Hovenia dulcis Thunb, Melia azedarach L., Pinus elliottii Engelm., P. taeda L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels]. After 22 years, from the beginning of the PRP, the exotic species presented higher percentage of survival than native species; the plots which received either B. densiflora and S. parahyba or were covered only with herbaceous vegetation associated with solely a few shrubs. Conversely, the plots which received seedlings of M. scabrella displayed clear evidence of restoration in progress. The study conducted in plots that have received M. scabrella indicate an improvement of nutrient load (N, K, organic matter) in the substrate, a diversified composition of tree coverage (very similar to the nearby remnants of the Atlantic Rainforest) and other life forms, with prominent establishment of native trees with predominance of zoophilous and zoochorous species. Some characteristics of M. scabrella that could explain its outstanding capacity to enhance the restoration of the Atlantic Rainforest are also discussed along this paper.
Mimosa scabrella BENTH. (FABACEAE) MELHORA A RESTAURAÇÃO EM ÁREAS DE MINERAÇÃO DE CARVÃO NA FLORESTA ATLÂNTICARESUMO: Um Projeto Piloto de Recuperação (PPR) foi desenvolvido em 1982 pela Fundação do Meio Ambiente do Estado de Santa Catarina -Brasil, objetivando avaliar a adaptação de espécies arbóreas em áreas degradadas pela mineração de carvão. Após uma completa reconstituição topográfica da paisagem, além da carga de nutrientes e sementes de espécies herbáceas, a área foi dividida em 12 pontos onde foram plantadas mudas de 12 espécies de árvores: três espécies nativas [Bastardiopsis densiflora (Hook. & Arn.) Hassl., Mimosa scabrella Benth., Schizolobium parahyba (Vell.) Blake)] e nove espécies exóticas [Eucalyptus saligna Sm., E. viminalis Labill., C. citriodora Hook., Grevillea hilliana F.Muell., Hovenia dulcis Thunb., Melia azedarach L., Pinus elliottii Engelm., P. taeda L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels]. Após 22 anos, as espécies exóticas apresentaram elevada taxa de sobrevivência em comparação com as espécies nativas; os pontos que receberem B. densiflora e S. parahyba foram cobertos apenas com espécies herbáceas associadas com alguns arbustos. Reciprocamente, os pontos que receberam mudas de M. scabrella demonstraram claras evidências no processo de restauração. O estudo conduzido em pontos que ...
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