Diabetic maculopathy (DM) is one of the major causes of vision impairment in individuals with diabetes. The traditional approach to diagnosis of DM includes fundus ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography. Although very useful clinically, these methods do not contribute much to the evaluation of retinal morphology and its thickness profile. That is why a new technique called optical coherence tomography (OCT) was utilized to perform cross-sectional imaging of the retina. It facilitates measuring the macular thickening, quantification of diabetic macular oedema, and detecting vitreoretinal traction. Thus, OCT may assist in patient selection with DM who can benefit from treatment, identify what treatment is indicated, guide its implementing, and allow precise monitoring of treatment response. It seems to be the technique of choice for the early detection of macular oedema and for the followup of DM.
ABSTRACT.Purpose: To assess the possible association of lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene variants with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) in Polish population. Methods: The group studied comprised of 36 patients with PEX (men and women) who presented to Department of Ophthalmology Collegium Medicum UMK in Bydgoszcz, Poland, and 30 control subjects. Blood samples were obtained from each patient via peripheral venipuncture, and genomic DNA was isolated according to the standard procedures. Three LOXL1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1048661 (R141L), rs3825942 (G153D) and rs216524 were genotyped in patient sample. Results: The significant association with PEX was found for the G allele of rs3825942 (p = 0.0047) and for the T allele of rs216541 (p = 0.021). The haplotype (GGT) consisting of all three risk alleles was significantly overrepresented (87.5%) in patients with PEX. Conclusion: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in LOXL1 are associated with PEX in Polish population which confirms the association previously reported for Icelandic, Swedish, Indian and other populations.
The patients with CSCR demonstrated less exploratory behaviors, higher risk avoidance, restraint, and low extravagance. They were more quick-tempered, disorganized, and easily frustrated, with a tendency to avoid negative and potentially harmful stimuli, less tolerance to frustration, higher level of insecurity, and higher level of anticipatory anxiety.
We compare four optical coherence tomography techniques for noninvasive visualization of microcapillary network in the human retina and murine cortex. We perform phantom studies to investigate contrast-to-noise ratio for angiographic images obtained with each of the algorithm. We show that the computationally simplest absolute intensity difference angiographic OCT algorithm that bases only on two cross-sectional intensity images may be successfully used in clinical study of healthy eyes and eyes with diabetic maculopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion.
Orbital complications of endoscopic nasal surgery are rare. The incidence of serious complications, causing permanent disabilities is less than 0.3%. The most important parameters responsible for complications are extension of the disease, previous endoscopic surgery and coexisting anticoagulant treatment.
Aim To evaluate the structural and functional outcomes in patients who underwent macular hole (MH) surgery in the long-term follow-up. Materials and Methods Forty-four eyes of 40 patients (28 females and 12 males) were examined. The examination included visual acuity, optical coherence tomography, and colour vision testing. The same evaluation was performed in 30 fellow eyes. Results MH closure was obtained in 42 eyes (95.45%). There was no reopening of the initially closed MHs. In long-term postoperative examination, we observed IS/OS junction defects in 28 (63.6%) eyes and ELM defects in 19 (43.2%) eyes. We found that the IS/OS junction defects correlated with the diameter of the MH (p=0.016), whereas ELM defects correlated with both the diameter of the MH (p=0.001) and duration time of the MH (p=0.008). The presence of ELM defects in OCT was the cause of inferior BCVA in long-term observation time (p=0.004). The mean BCVA before the MH surgery was 0.15. It improved significantly both in early (p < 0.001) and long-term postoperative observation (p < 0.005). Generally, the functional outcomes were better in eyes with short-time duration of the MH, when a smaller diameter (<400 μm) of the hole was measured and a V-shaped closure of the MH and the restoration of the ELM line on OCT were present. Pseudoprotanomaly was noted in 13 (35.1%) eyes. In the fellow eye group, mean BCVA was 0.95 (range, 0.6–1.0). In 3 eyes, we detected vitreomacular traction, and in 4 eyes, initial cataract. These conditions, as well as probably early stage of diabetes mellitus, influenced functional outcomes of studied eyes. Conclusions The anatomic and functional outcomes after macular surgery are satisfactory and improve with time. After a successful closing of the MH, the restoration of the retina progresses at a slower pace than improvement in visual acuity.
The diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in young adults have significantly improved in recent years. Research methods have widened significantly, for example, by introducing spectral optical tomography of the eye. Invasive diagnostics, for example, fluorescein angiography, are done less frequently. The early introduction of an insulin pump to improve the administration of insulin is likely to delay the development of diabetic retinopathy, which is particularly important for young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The first years of diabetes occurring during childhood and youth are the most appropriate to introduce proper therapeutic intervention before any irreversible changes in the eyes appear. The treatment of DR includes increased metabolic control, laserotherapy, pharmacological treatment (antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory treatment, enzymatic vitreolysis, and intravitreal injections), and surgery. This paper summarizes the up-to-date developments in the diagnostics and treatment of DR. In the literature search, authors used online databases, PubMed, and clinitrials.gov and browsed through individual ophthalmology journals, books, and leading pharmaceutical company websites.
Purpose To evaluate lipids and C-reactive protein serum levels in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) in the Polish population. Methods 96 patients were studied with PEX and 79 control subjects. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and CRP serum levels, and TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C indexes were assessed. Results There were no significant differences in concentration of lipids and values of TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C between PEX and control groups. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was not increased in patients with PEX. Conclusions Our results cast doubt on the opinion on the possible PEX and vascular diseases relation. Further studies on this subject are mandatory.
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