In the last 15 years, different types of Triatominae resistance to different insecticides have been reported; thus, resistance may be more widespread than known, requiring better characterization and delimitation, which was the aim of this review. This review was structured on a literature search of all articles from 1970 to 2015 in the PubMed database that contained the keywords Insecticide resistance and Triatominae. Out of 295 articles screened by title, 33 texts were selected for detailed analysis. Insecticide resistance of Triatomines is a complex phenomenon that has been primarily reported in Argentina and Bolivia, and is caused by different factors (associated or isolated). Insecticide resistance of Triatominae is a characteristic inherited in an autosomal and semi-dominant manner, and is polygenic, being present in both domestic and sylvatic populations. The toxicological profi le observed in eggs cannot be transposed to different stages of evolution. Different toxicological profi les exist at macro-and microgeographical levels. The insecticide phenotype has both reproductive and developmental costs. Different physiological mechanisms are involved in resistance. Studies of Triatomine resistance to insecticides highlight three defi ciencies in interpreting the obtained results: I) the vast diversity of methodologies, despite the existence of a single guiding protocol; II) the lack of information on the actual impact of resistance ratios in the fi eld; and III) the concept of the susceptibility reference lineage. Research on the biological and behavioral characteristics of each Triatominae species that has evolved resistance is required in relation to the environmental conditions of each region.
Introduction:Triatoma sordida is the most captured Triatomine species in the Brazilian artifi cial environment. In 2008, the discovery of three Triatomine populations with altered susceptibilities to deltamethrin highlighted the importance of investigating the genetic potential for resistance in triatomines. The purpose of this study was to characterize the susceptibility to deltamethrin of peridomestic T. sordida populations in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: A susceptibility reference lineage derived from Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil was used. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of fi rst instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD 99 of the susceptibility reference lineage. Results: Susceptibility profi le characterization of T. sordida populations revealed resistance ratios (RR 50 s) ranging from 0.42 to 3.94. The percentage mortality in response to the diagnostic dose varied from 70% to 100%. A comparison of the results obtained in the quantitative and qualitative assays demonstrated a lack of correspondence for some populations. Conclusions: We demonstrated that only T. sordida populations that present a RR 50 >1.0 have altered susceptibility, and the execution of simultaneous fi eld and laboratory tests is required to understand the actual effect of vector control. A possible cause of the observed resistance ratios might be the continuous use of pyrethroids in Brazil since the 1980s.
The results of this study indicate that the persistence of residual foci of T. infestans in Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul is not related to insecticide resistance but may be associated with operational failures. In Rio Grande do Sul, we must consider the possibility of continuous reinfestation by Argentinian individuals, which justifies active and efficient epidemiological surveillance.
BackgroundGiven the increase in cases of visceral leishmaniasis in recent years, associated with the socio-economic impact of this disease, as well as the wide distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Brazil and the likelihood that this vector may develop resistance to insecticides used for control, the Ministry of Health considers as crucial the creation of a network in order to study and monitor the resistance of this vector to insecticides used for control. In this sense, this study aimed: 1) to characterize the susceptibility of L. longipalpis from Lapinha Cave (Lagoa Santa, MG - Brazil) to Alfateck SC200 in field bioassays, and 2) to define the susceptibility baseline to alpha-cypermethrin in laboratory bioassays, checking the possibility of using it as susceptibility reference lineage (SRL).FindingsThe field bioassays revealed that the tested population was highly susceptible to alpha-cypermethrin in all time periods with high mortality (~100 %) in all treated surfaces before six months after spraying. In the laboratory bioassays, the studied population presented LD50, LD95 and LD99 to 0.78013, 10.5580 and 31.067 mg/m2, respectively. The slope was 1.454121.ConclusionsThe studied population of L. longipalpis was considered as adequate for SRL according criterion recommended by Pan-American Health Organization and has proven susceptibility to tested insecticide in the field. One cannot rule out the possibility of finding populations of L. longipalpis more susceptible to alpha-cypermethrin; therefore, further research is necessary on other populations with potential use as a SRL.
Due to morphological similarities between Triatoma maculata and T. pseudomaculata, which comprise the "maculate complex", both had been regarded as the same species until 1964. Considering that the studies on triatomine hybridization permit hypotheses formulation concerning origin and divergence of species, enabling a quantitative analysis of taxonomic relationships between species, the present investigation was aimed at broadening further understanding related to the capacity of hybrid production by determining the degree of reproductive isolation between T. maculata and T. pseudomaculata. Our results have demonstrated that T. maculata and T. pseudomaculata showed no differences regarding reproduction patterns and they are able to cross, generating infertile hybrids.
BackgroundIn general, there was a large reduction in the occurrence of cases of Chagas disease in the last decades in Brazil. However, despite all of these efforts, there have been various reports of persistent reinfestations of T. sordida in a large part of the state of Minas Gerais, for reasons still little investigated. Thus, this purpose of this study was to characterize the deltamethrin susceptibility profile of peridomestic T. sordida populations from North of Minas Gerais – Brazil.MethodsSusceptibility to deltamethrin was assessed in seventeen peridomestic populations of T. sordida from North region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin in acetone (0.2 μL) were topically applied in first instar nymphs (F1, five days old, fasting, weight 1.2 ± 0.2 mg). Dose response results were analyzed with POLO program, determining the lethal doses, slope and resistance ratios (RR).ResultsSusceptibility profile characterization of T. sordida populations revealed resistance ratios (RR50) ranging from 2.50 to 7.08.ConclusionsIn fact, we know very little about the real impact of the resistance ratios obtained in the laboratory bioassays on the effectiveness of the vector control activities in the field. Thus, we prefer to refer to the populations with RR > 5 as populations with altered susceptibility. For these populations, the realization of laboratory and field trials, simultaneous and complementary, permitting the evaluation of both, is recommended.
BackgroundChemical control with pyrethroid insecticides has been effective in reducing endemic areas of distribution of Triatoma infestans in the Southern Cone, as well as Bolivia; this had considerably reduced the infestation of households in a large part of the territory. Nowadays, areas such as the Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys are regions where the reach of vector control strategies is becoming limited, and infestations of insecticide-treated households are reported more often. The objective of this study was to determine if the persistence of T. infestans stems from changes in the susceptibility of its toxicological profile in four communities in the municipality of Toro Toro, Potosi, Bolivia.MethodsSusceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of T. infestans was evaluated in two stages (16 populations before and 13 populations after spraying) among DUs (structures in the intra- and peridomicile) and wild ecotopes, in four communities. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin in acetone (0.2 μl) were applied topically on standardized first-stage nymphs. Dose-response results were analyzed with the software PoloPlus and the relationships between lethal doses (LD) and resistance ratios (RR50) were determined.ResultsDifferent degrees of RR50 were detected among the populations before and after spraying (25.66–54.70 and 21.91–40.67, respectively), as well as in different ecotopes within a DU (DU JC 3, 28.06–36.13, in mixed structures of corrals and chicken coops; and DU JG 3, 46.27–25.70, in kitchen roofs), or in the wild environment of the community JG Sil (29.21–40.67). The mortality of insects undergoing diagnostic dose (DD) was never higher than 34%.ConclusionThe results obtained in this study showed resistance of T. infestans to deltamethrin in four communities, hence the complexity of this phenomenon is not only limited to the level of communities, but also applies to the microgeographical level, as in different ecotopes present within the DUs. This phenomenon should be considered while planning the activities of control programs.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers