Neuroinflammatory response is primarily a protective mechanism in the brain. However, excessive and chronic inflammatory responses can lead to deleterious effects involving immune cells, brain cells and signaling molecules. Neuroinflammation induces and accelerates pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Multiple sclerosis (MS). Neuroinflammatory pathways are indicated as novel therapeutic targets for these diseases. Mast cells are immune cells of hematopoietic origin that regulate inflammation and upon activation release many proinflammatory mediators in systemic and central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory conditions. In addition, inflammatory mediators released from activated glial cells induce neurodegeneration in the brain. Systemic inflammation-derived proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and other factors cause a breach in the blood brain-barrier (BBB) thereby allowing for the entry of immune/inflammatory cells including mast cell progenitors, mast cells and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines into the brain. These peripheral-derived factors and intrinsically generated cytokines/chemokines, α-synuclein, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), substance P (SP), beta amyloid 1–42 (Aβ1–42) peptide and amyloid precursor proteins can activate glial cells, T-cells and mast cells in the brain can induce additional release of inflammatory and neurotoxic molecules contributing to chronic neuroinflammation and neuronal death. The glia maturation factor (GMF), a proinflammatory protein discovered in our laboratory released from glia, activates mast cells to release inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Chronic increase in the proinflammatory mediators induces neurotoxic Aβ and plaque formation in AD brains and neurodegeneration in PD brains. Glial cells, mast cells and T-cells can reactivate each other in neuroinflammatory conditions in the brain and augment neuroinflammation. Further, inflammatory mediators from the brain can also enter into the peripheral system through defective BBB, recruit immune cells into the brain, and exacerbate neuroinflammation. We suggest that mast cell-associated inflammatory mediators from systemic inflammation and brain could augment neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the brain. This review article addresses the role of some atypical inflammatory mediators that are associated with mast cell inflammation and their activation of glial cells to induce neurodegeneration.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new pandemic infectious disease that originated in China. COVID-19 is a global public health emergency of international concern. COVID-19 causes mild to severe illness with high morbidity and mortality, especially in preexisting risk groups. Therapeutic options are now limited to COVID-19. The hallmark of COVID-19 pathogenesis is the cytokine storm with elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), chemokine (C-C-motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). COVID-19 can cause severe pneumonia, and neurological disorders, including stroke, the damage to the neurovascular unit, blood-brain barrier disruption, high intracranial proinflammatory cytokines, and endothelial cell damage in the brain. Mast cells are innate immune cells and also implicated in adaptive immune response, systemic inflammatory diseases, neuroinflammatory diseases, traumatic brain injury and stroke, and stress disorders. SARS-CoV-2 can activate monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, mast cells, neutrophils, and induce cytokine storm in the lung. COVID-19 can activate mast cells, neurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells. SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause psychological stress and neuroinflammation. In conclusion, COVID-19 can induce mast cell activation, psychological stress, cytokine storm, and neuroinflammation.
Mast cells are localized throughout the body and mediate allergic, immune, and inflammatory reactions. They are heterogeneous, tissue-resident, long-lived, and granulated cells. Mast cells increase their numbers in specific site in the body by proliferation, increased recruitment, increased survival, and increased rate of maturation from its progenitors. Mast cells are implicated in brain injuries, neuropsychiatric disorders, stress, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Brain mast cells are the first responders before microglia in the brain injuries since mast cells can release prestored mediators. Mast cells also can detect amyloid plaque formation during Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Stress conditions activate mast cells to release prestored and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators and induce increased blood-brain barrier permeability, recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into the brain and neuroinflammation. Stress induces the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and mast cells. CRH activates glial cells and mast cells through CRH receptors and releases neuroinflammatory mediators. Stress also increases proinflammatory mediator release in the peripheral systems that can induce and augment neuroinflammation. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a traumatic-chronic stress related mental dysfunction. Currently there is no specific therapy to treat PTSD since its disease mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Moreover, recent reports indicate that PTSD could induce and augment neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mast cells play a crucial role in the peripheral inflammation as well as in neuroinflammation due to brain injuries, stress, depression, and PTSD. Therefore, mast cells activation in brain injury, stress, and PTSD may accelerate the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases including AD. This review focusses on how mast cells in brain injuries, stress, and PTSD may promote the pathogenesis of AD. We suggest that inhibition of mast cells activation and brain cells associated inflammatory pathways in the brain injuries, stress, and PTSD can be explored as a new therapeutic target to delay or prevent the pathogenesis and severity of AD.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) containing hyper-phosphorylated tau, and the extracellular deposition of amyloid plaques (APs) with misfolded amyloid–β (Aβ) peptide. Glia maturation factor (GMF), a highly conserved pro-inflammatory protein, isolated and cloned in our laboratory has been shown to activate glial cells leading to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in AD. We hypothesized that inflammatory reactions promoted by NLRP3-Caspase-1inflammasome pathway trigger dysfunction in autophagy and accumulation of Aβ which is amplified and regulated by GMF in AD. In this study, using immunohistochemical techniques we analyzed components of the NLRP3 inflammasome and autophagy-lysosomal markers in relation to Aβ, p-tau and GMF in human post-mortem AD and age-matched non-AD brains. Tissue sections were prepared from the temporal cortex of human post-mortem brains. Here, we demonstrate an increased expression of the inflammasome components NLRP3 and Caspase-1 and the products of inflammasome activation IL-1β and IL-18 along with GMF in the temporal cortex of AD brains. These inflammasome components and the pro-inflammatory cytokines co-localized with GMF in the vicinity and periphery of the amyloid plaques and NFTs. Moreover, using double immunofluorescence staining, AD brain displayed an increase in the autophagy SQSTM1/p62 and LC3 positive vesicles and the lysosomal marker LAMP1 that also co-localized with GMF, amyloid beta and hyper-phosphorylated p-tau. Our results indicate that in AD, the neuroinflammation promoted by the NLRP3 inflammasome may be amplified and regulated by GMF, which further impairs clearance of protein aggregates mediated by the autophagosomal pathway.
Mast cell activation plays an important role in stress-mediated disease pathogenesis. Chronic stress cause or exacerbate aging and age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases. The severity of inflammatory diseases is worsened by the stress. Mast cell activation-dependent inflammatory mediators augment stress associated pain and neuroinflammation. Stress is the second most common trigger of headache due to mast cell activation. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive irreversible neurodegenerative disease that affects more women than men and woman's increased susceptibility to chronic stress could increase the risk for AD. Modern life-related stress, social stress, isolation stress, restraint stress, early life stress are associated with an increased level of neurotoxic beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide. Stress increases cognitive dysfunction, generates amyloid precursor protein (APP), hyperphosphorylated tau, neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), and amyloid plaques (APs) in the brain. Stress-induced Aβ persists for years and generates APs even several years after the stress exposure. Stress activates hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and releases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from hypothalamus and in peripheral system, which increases the formation of Aβ, tau hyperphosphorylation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the brain. Mast cells are implicated in nociception and pain. Mast cells are the source and target of CRH and other neuropeptides that mediate neuroinflammation. Microglia express receptor for CRH that mediate neurodegeneration in AD. However, the exact mechanisms of how stress-mediated mast cell activation contribute to the pathogenesis of AD remains elusive. This mini-review highlights the possible role of stress and mast cell activation in neuroinflammation, BBB, and tight junction disruption and AD pathogenesis.
Neuroinflammation leads to neurodegeneration, cognitive defects, and neurodegenerative disorders. Neurotrauma/traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause activation of glial cells, neurons, and neuroimmune cells in the brain to release neuroinflammatory mediators. Neurotrauma leads to immediate primary brain damage (direct damage), neuroinflammatory responses, neuroinflammation, and late secondary brain damage (indirect) through neuroinflammatory mechanism. Secondary brain damage leads to chronic inflammation and the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, there are no effective and specific therapeutic options to treat these brain damages or neurodegenerative diseases. Flavone luteolin is an important natural polyphenol present in several plants that show anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, cytoprotective, and macrophage polarization effects. In this short review article, we have reviewed the neuroprotective effects of luteolin in neurotrauma and neurodegenerative disorders and pathways involved in this mechanism. We have collected data for this study from publications in the PubMed using the keywords luteolin and mast cells, neuroinflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and TBI. Recent reports suggest that luteolin suppresses systemic and neuroinflammatory responses in Coronavirus disease 2019 . Studies have shown that luteolin exhibits neuroprotective effects through various mechanisms, including suppressing immune cell activation, such as mast cells, and inflammatory mediators released from these cells. In addition, luteolin can suppress neuroinflammatory response, activation of microglia and astrocytes,
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder characterized by neuroinflammation and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the brain. 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), a metabolite of the parkinsonian neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces the release of inflammatory mediators from glial cells and neurons. Glia maturation factor (GMF), a brain proinflammatory protein, MPP+, and mast cell-derived inflammatory mediators induce neurodegeneration which eventually leads to PD. However, the precise mechanisms underlying interaction between glial cells, neurons and mast cells in PD still remain elusive. In the present study, mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) and mouse fetal brain-derived mixed glia/neurons, astrocytes and neurons were incubated with MPP+, GMF and mast cell-derived inflammatory mediators mouse mast cell protease-6 (MMCP-6), MMCP-7 or tryptase/brain-specific serine protease-4 (tryptase/BSSP-4). Inflammatory mediators released from these cells in the culture medium were quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neurodegeneration was quantified by measuring total neurite outgrowth following microtubule-associated protein-2 immunocytochemistry. MPP+− induced significant neurodegeneration with reduced total neurite outgrowth. MPP+− induced the release of tryptase/BSSP-4 from the mouse mast cells, and tryptase/BSSP-4 induced chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) release from astrocytes and glia/neurons. Overall our results suggest that MPP+, GMF, MMCP-6 or MMCP-7 stimulate glia/neurons, astrocytes or neurons to release CCL2 and matrix metalloproteinase-3. Additionally, CD40L expression is increased in BMMCs after incubation with MPP+ in a co-culture system consisting of BMMCs and glia/neurons. We propose that mast cell interaction with glial cells and neurons during neuroinflammation can be explored as a new therapeutic target for PD.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem in the United States, which affects about 1.7 million people each year. Glial cells, T-cells, and mast cells perform specific protective functions in different regions of the brain for the recovery of cognitive and motor functions after central nervous system (CNS) injuries including TBI. Chronic neuroinflammatory responses resulting in neuronal death and the accompanying stress following brain injury predisposes or accelerates the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in high-risk individuals. About 5.7 million Americans are currently living with AD. Immediately following brain injury, mast cells respond by releasing prestored and preactivated mediators and recruit immune cells to the CNS. Blood-brain barrier (BBB), tight junction and adherens junction proteins, neurovascular and gliovascular microstructural rearrangements, and dysfunction associated with increased trafficking of inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cells from the periphery across the BBB leads to increase in the chronic neuroinflammatory reactions following brain injury. In this review, we advance the hypothesis that neuroinflammatory responses resulting from mast cell activation along with the accompanying risk factors such as age, gender, food habits, emotional status, stress, allergic tendency, chronic inflammatory diseases, and certain drugs can accelerate brain injury-associated neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and AD pathogenesis.
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