Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have been extensively studied because of their outstanding performance: a power conversion efficiency exceeding 22% has been achieved. The most commonly used PSCs consist of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) with a hole-selective contact, such as 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spiro-bifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD), for collecting holes. From the perspective of long-term operation of solar cells, the cell performance and constituent layers (MAPbI3, spiro-OMeTAD, etc.) may be influenced by external conditions like temperature, light, etc. Herein, we report the effects of temperature on spiro-OMeTAD and the interface between MAPbI3 and spiro-OMeTAD in a solar cell. It was confirmed that, at high temperatures (85 °C), I− and CH3NH3 + (MA+) diffused into the spiro-OMeTAD layer in the form of CH3NH3I (MAI). The diffused I− ions prevented oxidation of spiro-OMeTAD, thereby degrading the electrical properties of spiro-OMeTAD. Since ion diffusion can occur during outdoor operation, the structural design of PSCs must be considered to achieve long-term stability.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), including its mild cognitive impairment (MCI) phase that may or may not progress into the AD, is the most ordinary form of dementia. It is extremely important to correctly identify patients during the MCI stage because this is the phase where AD may or may not develop. Thus, it is crucial to predict outcomes during this phase. Thus far, many researchers have worked on only using a single modality of a biomarker for the diagnosis of AD or MCI. Although recent studies show that a combination of one or more different biomarkers may provide complementary information for the diagnosis, it also increases the classification accuracy distinguishing between different groups. In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning-based framework to discriminate subjects with AD or MCI utilizing a combination of four different biomarkers: fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein levels, and Apolipoprotein-E (APOE) genotype. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) baseline dataset was used in this study. In total, there were 158 subjects for whom all four modalities of biomarker were available. Of the 158 subjects, 38 subjects were in the AD group, 82 subjects were in MCI groups (including 46 in MCIc [MCI converted; conversion to AD within 24 months of time period], and 36 in MCIs [MCI stable; no conversion to AD within 24 months of time period]), and the remaining 38 subjects were in the healthy control (HC) group. For each image, we extracted 246 regions of interest (as features) using the Brainnetome template image and NiftyReg toolbox, and later we combined these features with three CSF and two APOE genotype features obtained from the ADNI website for each subject using early fusion technique. Here, a different kernel-based multiclass support vector machine (SVM) classifier with a grid-search method was applied. Before passing the obtained features to the classifier, we have used truncated singular value decomposition (Truncated SVD) dimensionality reduction technique to reduce high dimensional features into a lower-dimensional feature. As a result, our combined method achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AU-ROC) curve of 98.33, 93.59, 96.83, 94.64, 96.43, and 95.24% for AD vs. HC, MCIs vs. MCIc, AD vs. MCIs, AD vs. MCIc, HC vs. MCIc, and HC vs. MCIs subjects which are high relative to single modality results and other state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, combined multimodal methods have improved the classification performance over the unimodal classification.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia, which causes serious health and socioeconomic problems. A progressive neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer's causes the structural change in the brain, thereby affecting behavior, cognition, emotions, and memory. Numerous multivariate analysis algorithms have been used for classifying AD, distinguishing it from healthy controls (HC). Efficient early classification of AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from HC is imperative as early preventive care could help to mitigate risk factors. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a noninvasive biomarker, displays morphometric differences and cerebral structural changes. A novel approach for distinguishing AD from HC using dual-tree complex wavelet transforms (DTCWT), principal coefficients from the transaxial slices of MRI images, linear discriminant analysis, and twin support vector machine is proposed here. The prediction accuracy of the proposed method yielded up to 92.65 ± 1.18 over the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset, with a specificity of 92.19 ± 1.56 and sensitivity of 93.11 ± 1.29, and 96.68 ± 1.44 over the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS) dataset, with a sensitivity of 97.72 ± 2.34 and specificity of 95.61 ± 1.67. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity achieved using the proposed method are comparable or superior to those obtained by various conventional AD prediction methods.
Using deep neural networks for segmenting an MRI image of heterogeneously distributed pixels into a specific class assigning a label to each pixel is the concept of the proposed approach. This approach facilitates the application of the segmentation process on a preprocessed MRI image, with a trained network to be utilized for other test images. As labels are considered expensive assets in supervised training, fewer training images and training labels are used to obtain optimal accuracy. To validate the performance of the proposed approach, an experiment is conducted on other test images (available in the same database) that are not part of the training; the obtained result is of good visual quality in terms of segmentation and quite similar to the ground truth image. The average computed Dice similarity index for the test images is approximately 0.8, whereas the Jaccard similarity measure is approximately 0.6, which is better compared to other methods. This implies that the proposed method can be used to obtain reference images almost similar to the segmented ground truth images.
Early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is always useful. Preventive measures might have an impact on reducing AD risk factors. Structural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, one of the vital sensitive biomarkers for cerebral atrophy in the brain, is used to extract volumetric feature by FreeSurfer and the CIVET toolbox. All of the structural magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) data that we used were downloaded from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database (adni.loni.usc.edu) of imaging data. This novel approach is applied for the diagnosis of AD and MCI from healthy controls (HCs) combining extracted features with the MMSE (mini-mental state examination) scores, applying a two sample t-test to select a subset of features. The subset of features is fed to kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) module to project data onto the reduced principal component coefficients at higher dimensional kernel space to increase the linear separability. Then, the kernel PCA coefficients are projected into the more efficient linear discriminant space using linear discriminant analysis. A multi-kernel learning support vector machine (SVM) is used on newly projected data for stratification of AD and MCI from HCs. Using this approach, we obtain 93.85% classification accuracy when detecting AD from HCs for segmented volumetric features (using FreeSurfer) with high sensitivity and specificity. When distinguishing MCI from HCs and AD using volumetric features after subcortical segmentation, the detection rate reaches 86.54% and 75.12%, respectively. K E Y W O R D S FreeSurfer, CIVET, KPCA, PCA, LDA, MK-SVM | I N T R O D U C T I O NAlzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent type of dementia, which is suffered primarily by the elders. AD, which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, damages brain cells, and then, induces cognitive assessments, behavioral dilemmas, and memory disarray. According to a statistical report, over 135 million people worldwide will suffer from dementia by 2030, which is triple the current number of affected patients. The diagnosis cost of all AD patients is estimated to be $220 billion in The United States and $605 billion per year globally.Previous non-invasive diagnosis methods relied primarily on patient history, clinical observation, and cognitive assessment. Recently, researchers identified the sensitivity of different biomarkers for early detection of AD, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). 1 Biomarkers from structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) can be used for brain atrophy measurement so as to detect the abnormal volumetric changes related to AD. Functional imaging (e.g., FDG-PET) provides hypo metabolism quantification, whereas cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides information about changes in proteins. 2 Brain *Data used in preparation of this article were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database (adni.loni. usc.edu). As such, the investigators within the ADNI contributed to the design and impl...
Recently, the task of validating the authenticity of images and the localization of tampered regions has been actively studied. In this paper, we go one step further by providing solid evidence for image manipulation. If a certain image is proved to be the spliced image, we try to retrieve the original authentic images that were used to generate the spliced image. Especially for the image retrieval of spliced images, we propose a hybrid image-retrieval method exploiting Zernike moment and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features. Due to the symmetry and antisymmetry properties of the Zernike moment, the scaling invariant property of SIFT and their common rotation invariant property, the proposed hybrid image-retrieval method is efficient in matching regions with different manipulation operations. Our simulation shows that the proposed method significantly increases the retrieval accuracy of the spliced images.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.