These results confirm that lung metastasectomy is a safe and potentially curative procedure. Resectability, disease-free interval, and number of metastases enabled us to design a simple system of classification valid for different tumor types.
High-grade osteosarcoma is a primary malignant bone tumour mainly affecting children and young adults. The European and American Osteosarcoma Study (EURAMOS)-1 is a collaboration of four study groups aiming to improve outcomes of this rare disease by facilitating randomised controlled trials.
Patients eligible for EURAMOS-1 were aged ≤40 years with M0 or M1 skeletal high-grade osteosarcoma in which case complete surgical resection at all sites was deemed to be possible. A three-drug combination with methotrexate, doxorubicin and cisplatin was defined as standard chemotherapy, and between April 2005 and June 2011, 2260 patients were registered. We report survival outcomes and prognostic factors in the full cohort of registered patients.
For all registered patients at a median follow-up of 54 months (interquartile range: 38–73) from biopsy, 3-year and 5-year event-free survival were 59% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 57–61%) and 54% (95% CI: 52–56%), respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that the most adverse factors at diagnosis were pulmonary metastases (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.95–2.81), non-pulmonary metastases (HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.38–2.73) or an axial skeleton tumour site (HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.10–2.13). The histological subtypes telangiectatic (HR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33–0.80) and unspecified conventional (HR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88) were associated with a favourable prognosis compared with chondroblastic subtype. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival from biopsy were 79% (95% CI: 77–81%) and 71% (95% CI: 68–73%), respectively. For patients with localised disease at presentation and in complete remission after surgery, having a poor histological response was associated with worse outcome after surgery (HR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.76–2.58). In radically operated patients, there was no good evidence that axial tumour site was associated with worse outcome.
In conclusion, data from >2000 patients registered to EURAMOS-1 demonstrated survival rates in concordance with institution- or group-level osteosarcoma trials. Further efforts are required to drive improvements for patients who can be identified to be at higher risk of adverse outcome. This trial reaffirms known prognostic factors, and owing to the large numbers of patients registered, it sheds light on some additional factors to consider.
The 5-year OS and PFS rates in randomly assigned patients with resectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer were excellent with both treatments. Both are acceptable strategies for this good-prognosis group.
To our knowledge, this is the first report of survival estimates derived from large cohorts of unselected patients with second and subsequent osteosarcoma recurrences. It confirms the overwhelming importance of surgical clearance. Prognostic indicators after rerecurrences resemble those known from first recurrence. The exact role of re-treatment with chemotherapy, particularly in the adjuvant situation, remains to be defined.
Dynamic MR imaging delineates significant kinetic and morphologic differences in vascularity and perfusion between malignant and benign solitary pulmonary nodules. Washout seems to be highly specific for malignancy.
Patient prognosis in lung cancer largely depends on early diagnosis. The exhaled breath of patients may represent the ideal specimen for future lung cancer screening. However, the clinical applicability of current diagnostic sensor technologies based on signal pattern analysis remains incalculable due to their inability to identify a clear target. To test the robustness of the presence of a so far unknown volatile organic compound in the breath of patients with lung cancer, sniffer dogs were applied.Exhalation samples of 220 volunteers (healthy individuals, confirmed lung cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) were presented to sniffer dogs following a rigid scientific protocol. Patient history, drug administration and clinicopathological data were analysed to identify potential bias or confounders.Lung cancer was identified with an overall sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 93%. Lung cancer detection was independent from COPD and the presence of tobacco smoke and food odours. Logistic regression identified two drugs as potential confounders.It must be assumed that a robust and specific volatile organic compound (or pattern) is present in the breath of patients with lung cancer. Additional research efforts are required to overcome the current technical limitations of electronic sensor technologies to engineer a clinically applicable screening tool.
Exact pretherapeutic lymph node staging of lung cancer is of special importance for selecting patients for neoadjuvant therapy or for video-assisted thoracoscopic resection. Staging is usually performed by computerized tomography scan and mediastinoscopy. However, these methods do not reach the accuracy of open nodal dissection. Therefore, we developed a technique of radical video-assisted mediastinoscopic lymphadenectomy (VAMLA). In a prospective study, all VAMLA procedures were documented. Lymph nodes were counted and compared to open lymphadenectomy. In 40/46 patients, radical paratracheal and subcarinal dissection was achieved by VAMLA. An average number of 20.7 (5-60, SD 11.1) nodes was gained. This is comparable to our data from open lymphadenectomy.
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