The grape berry microclimate is known to influence berry quality. The effects of the light exposure of grape berry clusters on the composition of berry tissues were studied on the "Merlot" variety grown in a vineyard in Bordeaux, France. The light exposure of the fruiting zone was modified using different intensities of leaf removal, cluster position relative to azimuth, and berry position in the cluster. Light exposures were identified and classified by in situ measurements of berry temperatures. Berries were sampled at maturity (>19 Brix) for determination of skin and/or pulp chemical and metabolic profiles based on (1) chemical and physicochemical measurement of minerals (N, P, K, Ca, Mg), (2) untargeted 1H NMR metabolic fingerprints, and HPLC targeted analyses of (3) amino acids and (4) phenolics. Each profile defined by partial least-square discriminant analysis allowed us to discriminate berries from different light exposure. Discriminant compounds between shaded and light-exposed berries were quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, myricetin-3-glucoside, and isorhamnetin-3-glucoside for the phenolics, histidine, valine, GABA, alanine, and arginine for the amino acids, and malate for the organic acids. Capacities of the different profiling techniques to discriminate berries were compared. Although the proportion of explained variance from the 1H NMR fingerprint was lower compared to that of chemical measurements, NMR spectroscopy allowed us to identify lit and shaded berries. Light exposure of berries increased the skin and pulp flavonols, histidine and valine contents, and reduced the organic acids, GABA, and alanine contents. All the targeted and nontargeted analytical data sets used made it possible to discriminate sun-exposed and shaded berries. The skin phenolics pattern was the most discriminating and allowed us to sort sun from shade berries. These metabolite classes can be used to qualify berries collected in an undetermined environment. The physiological significance of light and temperature effects on berry composition is discussed.
The phenolic compounds, organic acids and the antioxidant activity were determined for grape juice samples from new Brazilian varieties grown in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley in the Northeast Region of Brazil. The results showed that the Brazilian grape juices have high antioxidant activity, which was significantly correlated with the phenolic compounds catechin, epicatechin gallate, procyanidin B1, rutin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyaniding-3,5-diglucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The produced juice samples showed higher concentrations of trans-resveratrol than those observed in juices made from different varieties of grapes from traditional growing regions. Organic acids concentrations were similar to those of juices produced from other classical varieties. It was demonstrated that it is possible to prepare juices from grapes of new varieties grown in the Northeast of Brazil containing a high content of bioactive compounds and typical characteristics of the tropical viticulture practised in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley.
Nearly 20 million tons of winery by-products, with many biological activities, are discarded each year in the world. The extraction of bioactive compounds from Chenin Blanc, Petit Verdot, and Syrah grape by-products, produced in the semi-arid region in Brazil, was optimized by a Central Composite Rotatable Design. The phenolic compounds profile, antioxidant capacity against synthetic free radicals (DPPH and ABTS), reactive oxygen species (ROS; peroxyl radical, superoxide radical, hypochlorous acid), cytotoxicity assay (MTT) and quantification of TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 cells were conducted. Gallic acid, syringic acid, procyanidins B1 and B2, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, quercetin 3-β-d-glucoside, delfinidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-glucoside were the main phenolic compounds identified. In general, rachis showed higher antioxidant capacity than pomace extract, especially for Chenin Blanc. All extracts showed low cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cells and Petit Verdot pomace suppressed TNF-α liberation in vitro. Therefore, these winery by-products can be considered good sources of bioactive compounds, with great potential for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
A HPLC method for simultaneous determination of 25 phenolic compounds in grape juice was optimized, validated and applied in the characterization of juices produced in São Francisco Valley (SFV), Brazil. The performance characteristics of the method were established by assays with standard solutions of phenolic compounds, spiked and unspiked samples. Linearity, matrix effects, trueness, precision, detection and quantification limits were evaluated. Linearity was demonstrated in the concentration ranges tested for all phenolic compounds. Significant matrix effects were not identified for the studied compounds. Mean recoveries ranged from 86.18 to 106.50%, demonstrating no lack of trueness. Precision of the method was confirmed for the 25 phenolic compounds, with acceptable repeatability relative standard deviations (from 0.71 to 9.24%) and within-reproducibility relative standard deviations (from 1.34 to 9.26%) for unspiked and spiked samples. The theoretical limits of detection and quantification of the method varied from 0.001 to 0.19 μg mL −1 and 0.003 to 0.37 μg mL −1 , respectively. The results of the validation process showed that the proposed method is fitness for purpose. This method was able to identify simultaneously 25 phenolic compounds and had advantages such as low consumption of solvents and easy sample preparation. The phenolic profile of the grape juices from SFV varied according the grape cultivar. Phenolics of the anthocyanins and tannins class predominated in red grape juices, while in white grape juice phenolic acids and tannins were found at high concentrations.
The biochemical composition of grape berries depends on the cultivar genome and is influenced by environmental conditions and growing practices, which vary according to origin and "terroir" (French word accounting for the factors of climate, soil, and cultural practices on grape and wine quality). The components currently measured to determine the potential quality of grapes for wine-making at harvest are sugars, acidity, pH, and total phenolics, referred to as "classic analysis". The aim of this work was to establish metabolic profiles using both conventional physicochemical analyses and 1H NMR spectrometry of the skin and pulp of mature berry extracts in order in four appellations situated in different locations in southern-western France (Bordeaux). Principal component analysis was applied to the physiochemical and 1H NMR data to investigate the variability of the grape composition and to characterize groups of samples. A significant clustering of the metabolic profile of pulps or skins in relation to their terroir was observed. Physicochemical analyses were more discriminant than 1H NMR data, but NMR spectroscopy allowed metabolic finger-printings using identified metabolites and some still nonattributed resonances.
Organic acids and sugars are related to the chemical balance of wines and grape juices, besides exerting a strong influence on the taste balance and sensorial acceptance by consumers. The aim of this study was to validate a method for the simultaneous determination of sugars and organic acids in wines and grape juices by highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with refractive index detection (RID) and diode array detection (DAD) and to characterize commercial products from northeast Brazil. The method provided values for linearity (R > 0.9982), precision (CV% < 1.4), recovery (76-106%) and limits of detection (0.003-0.044 g L −1) and quantification (0.008-0.199 g L −1) which are considered acceptable for application in the characterization of these types of matrices. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to verify the applicability of the method in the quality control of the products and resulted in the correct separation of the samples according to their type of processing. The results obtained in the characterization of the samples studied showed high levels of glucose and fructose in grape juice and the organic acids content was similar to those found in products originating from other regions around the world.
The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature.
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