This study aimed to select genotypes resistant to witches' broom (WB) and black pod (BP), major cacao diseases in Brazil, as well as incorporate resistance genes to moniliasis supplemented by clones EET75 and UF273, forming populations of second-cycle recurrent selection. Moniliophthora perniciosa (2 × 10 5 basidiospores/mL) was inoculated on 30-day-old seedlings from 72 different progenies, being assessed 60 days later, and a mixture of four isolates of Phytophthora palmivora (3 × 10 5 zoospores/mL) was inoculated on leaf discs from 58 progenies, observing lesions after seven days. Significant effects of progeny were observed in the tests of resistance to both diseases (p < 0.05). Scavina-6 expressed resistance to both pathogens, 26 crosses did not differ from free-pollinated progenies of Scavina-6 for WB, and ten crosses were higher and 27 similar for BP. Eight crosses were largely resistant to both diseases.
RESUMO O controle biológico da Murcha de Ceratocystis do cacaueiro (Ceratocystis cacaofunesta) pode ser uma alternativa promissora ainda inexplorada para controlar esta doença. Testaram-se doze isolados de Trichoderma spp. como agentes de biocontrole (BCAs) para C. cacaofunesta. Neste estudo, avaliou-se: i) antagonismo por confronto in vitro entre BCAs e patógeno, e por inibição da germinação de esporos do patógeno pelo secretoma dos antagonistas; ii) efeito dos BCAs na formação de peritécios do patógeno sobre discos de folhas; iii) efeito dos BCAS no controle da Murcha de Ceratocystis em mudas de cacaueiro em condição de casa de vegetação. Os BCAs testados inibiram 100% do crescimento in vitro do patógeno no terceiro dia; e reduziram a germinação de esporos do patógeno. Trichoderma virens (T68), T. harzianum (2927), T. loningiopsis (Tc26) e T. atroviride (7CC) inibiram entre 98,5 e 92,3% a formação de peritécios do patógeno. Os isolados 7CC, T68, Tc26 e 2729 são promissores como BCAs. Em BCAs combinados, maior inibição ocorreu nos tratamentos incluindo T68. Não se evidenciou a eficiência esperada nos testes com mudas.
Searching for new approaches to confer resistance to diseases in plants is one of the main objectives of the Cacao breeding program (CBP). Witches' broom (WB) and black pod rot (BPR) are important cacao diseases in Bahia,Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance in plants from 40 progenies of genetic crosses between elite clones to natural infection by high levels of Moniliophthora perniciosa and Phytophthora spp. WB and BPR infection assessments were conducted in the field, including evaluation of vegetative brooms (VB), cushion brooms (CB), and total brooms (TB), as well as the percentage of WB-diseased (FRUWB) and BPR-diseased (FRUBPR) fruits. Ten progenies showed resistance to infection in both the canopy and fruits. No significant differences between the progenies were detected for FRUBPR.
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