Non-meat ingredients have been added as extenders to variety of meat products, such as beef burger, to improve some properties. Textured soy protein (TSP), collagen (CL) and maltodextrin (MD); and their combinations (TSPCL, TSPMD, CLMD and TSPCLMD) were added to beef burgers and then the effect on physicochemical and sensory properties was evaluated. MD and TSPMD presented higher yield and TSPMD showed lower value for the shrinkage analysis; these results showed the positive influence of the maltodextrin in reducing water loss. CL and TSPCL were harder than the control treatment. CLMD had higher approval in sensorial acceptance than MD and TSPCL. The addition of these extenders in the beef burgers improved the cooking properties, texture and sensorial acceptance, showing the importance of the addition of these ingredients to the final product.
-The benefits of high-intensity ultrasound in diverse processes have stimulated many studies based on biomass pretreatment. In order to improve processes involving ultrasound, a calorimetric method has been widely used to measure the real power absorbed by the material as well as the cavitation effects. Peanut shells, a byproduct of peanut processing, were immersed in acidified aqueous solutions and submitted to an ultrasonic field. Acoustic power absorbed, acoustic intensity and power yield were obtained through specific heat determination and experimental data were modeled in different conditions. Specific heat values ranged from 3537.0 to 4190.6 J·kg -1 ·K -1 , with lower values encountered for more concentrated biomass suspensions. The acoustic power transmitted and acoustic intensity varied linearly with the applied power and quadratically with solids concentration, reaching maximum values at higher applied nominal power and for less concentrated suspensions. A power yield of 82.7% was reached for dilute suspensions at 320 W, while 6.4% efficiency was observed for a concentrated suspension at low input energy (80 W).
The effect of the temperature and concentration on rheological behavior of Merlot juice concentrates was assessed using a rheometer over a wide range of temperature (1-66°C) and concentrations (13.6-45.0Brix) at shear rates of 0.84-212.1 1/s. The Ostwald-De Waele was the best rheological model fitted the data (R=0.99967 and relative error=7.99%). The consistency levels were significantly reduced with the increase of temperature and increased with the increase of the concentrations, ranging from 0.1766 (13.6Brix at 66°C) to 19.1140Pa·s (45.0Brix at 1°C). The flow behavior index presented no up or downward pattern when the temperatures were compared. The flow activation energy ranged from 13.95 (45.0Brix) to 24.88KJ/mol (21.0Brix) with a R=0.9822 and 0.9812, respectively. Density and specific heat were influenced by both temperature and concentration; however, thermal conductivity was only influenced by concentration and temperature in two cases (13.6 and 29.0Brix). The data showed the potential use of Merlot juice concentrates as wine chaptalization agent in winemaking.
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